ABORTION ESSAY WRITING GUIDE
December 22, 2016>
Abortion is a rather popular topic of discussion. It is a rather sensitive and arguable subject and, therefore, it has a great variety of forms of debate on the issue, as well as various types of essays on it. This article is devoted to the comprehensive reviewing of different types of essays on the topic and providing the reader with relevant information on the most popular types of essays on abortion, including the description of each type, structure, outline, instructions, examples and other useful information.
Argumentative essay on Abortion
An argumentative essay implies establishing a certain position on a chosen, often controversial topic, and persuading the audience with help of pieces of evidence and facts supporting a certain point of view. Firstly, there should be done some research on several sides of the argument in order to collect certain facts, statements of experts, and statistics to support the chosen stance. These steps should be carefully considered before working on the outline of a future essay. When topic and fundamental position on the topic are chosen, the writer should put together an outline in order to substantiate his/her point of view with a sophisticated structure of the essay. The outline should comprise an introduction, a thesis, several pieces of evidence for each argument, refutation of the opposing viewpoint, and conclusion. The structure of the argumentative essay is rather clear, but still, you may have many questions on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion.
It is a rather sensitive topic with polar opinions on abortion itself. Some people reckon it’s a crime, and other consider it to be a free choice of each person. The most significant part of the writing is not to make some statements, but make a research on each and every statement and back up these arguments by facts and pieces of evidence. However, the first step to start from would be defining the topic. Basically, there is plenty of possible topics regarding this theme, but most of them usually come down to one issue on either side. Argumentative essay topics on abortion highlight the problem in terms of pro-life arguments (against this procedure), and pro-choice arguments (for legalization). While doing a thorough research, it is required to dig through opinions of professionals and recent statistics. It is important to be absolutely objective while writing this type of essay; you cannot just think out a fact or evidence which are not backed up by grounded research or a recognized expert. You should consider both aspects of the controversial topic and put the essay together so that it is highlighted in terms of two opposite opinions at a time. Such essays should include arguments in support of one side of the issue in conjunction with opposite opinion on this topic.
For instance, in the argumentative essay on why abortion should be illegal, the writer should make emphasis on four to five basic arguments, strengthened by facts and pieces of evidence. Taking a position on pro-life arguments, you can state that fetuses are human beings and are capable of feeling pain, and later support this statement with numerous pieces of evidence. The 4d scans, in this case, can serve as a proof, and if you look at snapshots, you can notice that after 12 weeks, fetuses are formed human beings, they have eyes and fingers, heart and a nervous system. By 8 weeks’ gestation period, a fetus can already flex its spine, which can indicate that it is already able to feel pain because the nervous system is already formed for it.
This argument should be followed by three or four strong corresponding arguments; for example, the second argument could be that this procedure can evoke medical complications and psychological trauma for women, and the third point can be religious responsibility; the fourth can defend human rights. You can divide your paper into four or five equal parts and just fill in the sections with the necessary content. You can put these arguments in the outline for argumentative essay on abortion in advance, in order to mitigate the writing process. Along with the arguments, which are the main body of the essay, the outline comprises introduction that gives a short information about the topic you work on and a thesis on this topic that come before the main body. If the topic is “Why abortion should be illegal”, introduce the issue in general, write a bit about it and explain your position in thesis by saying why you think that it should be illegal.
For example, it should be illegal, because fetus is a human being, and this procedure can be viewed as a murder. All this should be mentioned in the introduction paragraph for abortion essay. After introducing a general information on the topic and a certain thesis on the issue, you can start presenting the abovementioned arguments and continue with the refutation of opposing views. In this case, you should write why you think those who claim that it should be legal are wrong. For example, you can provide a couple of counterarguments of the opposite point of view. In this case, you can say that there are cases of unwanted pregnancy, but there are many families who struggle with a misery of infertility, who are willing to adopt a child. This will make your essay credible and objective because you will acknowledge the opposite arguments and mentioning them will make your statements even stronger.
After the main body is completed, you can start finalizing your argumentative essay on abortion. Conclusion should summarize all given arguments and counterarguments and leave readers with something to think about. For example, you can weigh out and assess all the particular cases and possible exceptions, when it might be an option to find way out of a really heartbreaking and difficult situation, and mention that these cases are not considered in this discussion, focus on the easy access to the discussed procedure and try putting doubt in the necessity of making it a fundamental human right. The same structure of the essay can be used in an argumentative essay on why abortion should be legal. Before starting to write about the topic in terms of pro-choice arguments, try to investigate the subject again and conduct a thorough research of the existing reliable sources, including articles, books, experts’ opinions, statistical data, historical reviews of the problem, facts, etc. Make sure that you have enough pieces of evidence to support your position and enough counterarguments to refute the opposite point of view. In order to organize the information, you have to compose an abortion essay outline. You may again recollect that there should be an introduction, in which you can mention that it should be a legal option for everyone, because nobody has right to interfere with someone’s life decisions, that illegal procedures will take place regardless the government’s provision and can result in more problems, and other corresponding ideas supporting abortion. Introduction paragraph may be followed by the pro-choice arguments, which are to be presented in the main body. Two opposite views of the issue should collide and they both should reflect the existing problems in terms of religion, law, morality, medicine, demography, human rights, and personal choice. You can write that fetuses are not yet human beings, that government has no right to decide anything related to the women’s bodies, that it is dangerous to make it illegal as it will provoke making this procedure by amateurs, and it can result in numerous deaths of women, etc.
You are welcome to continue your essay with the abortion counter arguments based on the opponents’ views. It is a really complicated question for discussion as it involves different aspects of life. A lot of factors should be taken into consideration while taking a decision about the age of the women, their financial stability and stability in their relationships. This encompasses certain layers of society: teenagers, unmarried and poor women. Morality is a subject of personal interpretation, and there can be different points of view in terms of morality regarding this issue. There are also many illnesses that may lead to birth defects, and such maternal illnesses can also be reviewed in your essay. Heart and kidney diseases, severe diabetes and other illnesses in conjunction with pregnancy and delivery can lead to irreversible complications and even death of a newborn. You can sum up all the above mentioned facts in conclusion for abortion essay. According to statistics, 51% of parents used contraceptives, but nevertheless, women got pregnant. It is significant to mention that there are cases of rape or incest, and women have no desire to give birth to unwanted children.
Basically, an argumentative essay should consist of pros and cons of your assertion on the debating issue. A good essay should combine different elements that will convince everybody to perceive the subject from your perspective. And it is significant to have strong arguments on the opposite point of view to parry it effectively. It is the essay in which you give arguments for and against abortion. We have also prepared the following plan you can stick to when working on your essay:The Pro-Con pattern should consist of introduction, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, con point + refutation, and conclusion.
- The Con-Pro pattern should contain: introduction, con-point + refutation, pro-point 1 + support, pro-point 2 + support, and conclusion.
- 3-Con pattern: introduction, con-point 1 + refutation, con-point 2 + refutation, con-point 3 + refutation, conclusion. All these three patterns are recommended for short argumentative essay on abortion.
- Claim/Counterclaim pattern. It consists of the introduction, two parts of the main body and conclusion. The first part includes three parts with counterclaim points with refutations, and the second part with three claim points and supporting arguments. The paper should include introduction, counterclaim (cc) point 1 + refutation, cc 2 + refutation, cc 3 + refutation, claim point 1 + support, claim point 2 + support, claim point 3 + support, and conclusion.
- Alternating pattern: introduction, three body parts (claim point 1 + support, counterclaim point 1 + support), and conclusion.
The last two patterns are intended for advanced college writing and are not recommended for a short argumentative essay on abortion. Don’t forget to support your opinion with facts, logical explanations and well-known experts’ opinions. It is also important to distinguish the notions to refute (prove that the point is incorrect) and to rebut (prove that the point is irrelevant or not strong enough) them. You can use both methods to parry the counterclaim. Before submitting your paper, you should make sure that it is completed correctly not only in terms of structure but that it also complies with all necessary requirements: title page, formatting style, citations and references, spelling and grammar. Even though you now have a comprehensive description of how to write an argumentative essay on abortion, you may still need more additional information about it. Maybe you will need some ready works to start your own research or for comparison to make sure that you composed your paper correctly.
For this purpose, you can search for the materials online or call upon the assistance of mates or professionals. There is no need to think out something that is not already represented on the web, and you definitely don’t need to reinvent the wheel. You can easily find an argumentative essay on abortion sample and compose your own in accordance with the already existing material. If you dig into the debating issue, you will find out a wide range of claims and counterclaims regarding it. And maybe the hardest part of writing will be taking a certain stand on the matter. For example, if you take a glance on the problem from a distance in terms of different countries and decades, different social layers and life circumstances, it will be even harder to provide the final assertion. For instance, abortion is legalized only in 30 countries of the world, and other countries restrict or partially allow abortion. There are many historical, social, legal, religious, moral, medical peculiarities and aspects that can be discussed in this kind of paper, and examples of argumentative essays on abortion can become a good guide if you are given a task to write a paper on this topic.
Such examples can give a certain direction and indicate the right steps to the proper highlighting of the debating issue. They can be helpful in reviewing the issue from the perspective of multidimensional and complex discussion, covering the holistic picture of the problem. They can show some questions that can be mentioned in the paper and can become of interest to the audience. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion on the Internet. However, due to the modern technologies, it becomes even a hard task to miss any necessary facts, opinions of experts and logical explanations. One may need to make an effort not to notice a corresponding information. Sometimes, it is not the lack of information, but the lack of time that plays a major role in the process of writing.
Therefore, there is a great variety of different materials on the web that may provide you with a great scope of new information on the subject. You can easily find free argumentative essays on abortion that can save your time in research and make your own writing full of bright and up-to-date pieces of evidence, facts, opinions of well-known authorities and logical explanations. Sometimes, it is more effective to invest your time in the reviewing of already completed papers in order to systemize your own thoughts about the debating issue, to look at the problem holistically and to find the necessary strategy of the upcoming work. No matter what position you have taken, you can find argumentative essay on abortion examples on both opinions with equally powerful arguments. Surely, you can dedicate your time and effort to reading books and articles in scientific papers. But on the other hand, to save your time, you can just check the reliability of the sources provided in already written papers and confidently use the rendered information.
Argumentative essay examples on abortion can come in handy at every stage of the writing process. With help of examples, you can compare your final paper and check if there is something else to be mentioned, whether you’ve missed some strong arguments to maximally get close to the full and objective picture of the problem. For example, some good points are mental and physical illnesses of potential mothers, genetic diseases of the fetus, countries where giving birth is heavily controlled by government and having more than two children is strongly discouraged, personal responsibility of each adult, potential risk of infertility after abortion procedure, etc. An argumentative essay on pros and cons of abortion should be elaborated, the arguments should be reasonable, evidence has to be solid, statistic data needs to be accurate, all expert opinions are to be recognized, sources must be reliable, and all logical explanations should be consequent.
Our tips on how to write an argumentative essay about abortion
TIP 1 – Search
Before you start writing an argumentative essay on abortion, the most important thing you should do is search for information. If you are about to open a new tab, stop for a moment and think about the books, articles in scientific papers and another kind of reliable sources that can be used. Even though it takes more time to find the information there, you can be sure that it is not made up. Afterward, you will be able to understand what kind of information from the Internet is not a complete fiction.
TIP 2- Don’t rush
Do you think you have gathered all the information you need and you are ready to write? The answer is a huge NO. Your desire to start writing is a good sign but be sure that you understand the concept of your future essay. Look through the notes and you will totally find at least a few that you don’t need or that were accidentally duplicated. Also, reading the material again may give you an idea of intro you want or will motivate you to do more searching.
TIP 3 – Strong intro.
It is always hard to start writing an argumentative essay. You want the words to lie perfectly on the paper and actually make sense, but sometimes (ok, let’s stop lying, almost every single time) you feel like a five-year-old trying to write a dissertation. Just face the fact: staring at the blank paper as if you have never seen one before will not help. Look at the first sentence of this article. Now you can legally steal it to start your paper. Add some information about political and moral aspects of the question. Try to avoid writing anything about religion and its role in a variety of disputes around the topic at first, as this may annoy some readers. You can always get to it later if you have such a need. Anyway, do your best to ensure the reader that you are taking this topic seriously. One of the best ways to do this is bringing up the statistics. Try to find a trustworthy source that will give you some real numbers and make it look interesting and convincing in the essay.
TIP 4 – Facts, facts and even more facts.
As in every essay, there are two opposite sides, and you need to describe both of them with no bias. Note that it is an argumentative essay, so clean your mind and try to remember only solid facts. Even if you don’t like the argument, because it proves the point of view you do not support, don’t try and twist it, as that will only show your unprofessional approach.
TIP 5 – Apply your knowledge
As you can now produce two completely different points of view, it is time to start writing the heart of an argumentative essay – the main part. This tip includes a lot of information, so read carefully.
Let’s start this part of an argumentative essay on abortion with pro-choice. This is when you need to look at a question from a point of view of a pregnant woman. Most of the resources suggest “my body – my choice” to be the strongest argument ever. But be careful writing this as there is an answer that can knock you out at once – the fetus is not actually your body. It is better to start with some medical facts about why pregnancy termination can or should be legal. Don’t be afraid to support your arguments with the actual numbers, but try not to cross the line, when there is only some raw statistics. Here are the most common situations, when a woman either wants or needs to have an abortion:
- There is a high risk of death while giving birth either for the woman or the fetus. Note that reasons may vary: sicknesses, traumas, etc.
- The fetus might have a genetic disease or any other anomaly, so that it will suffer after the birth.
- The woman was raped or it was incest. In both of the cases woman suffers a high level of stress and giving birth will definitely not reduce it.
- Mental illness. A mentally ill person cannot take a proper care of a baby or give birth safely. Besides, the disease can be passed to the child.
- The woman is too young to be a parent, has no financial resources or the child is unwanted. If she gives birth, there is a high possibility that a child will end up being uneducated, with no opportunities for the future, in jail or even dead at the early age.
- A fetus becomes an actual person when it has an independent body. This is one of the arguments that proves abortion is not a murder.
- A fetus will not feel pain if removed early (mainly, if a woman uses pills or any other non-surgical methods), so it’s only about the woman to choose.
- Women can get pregnant even using contraceptives. So it is not about her being irresponsible.
- Population control. Well, it is a common fact that the world is overpopulated, so there is no need to make the situation worse. This argument sounds pretty rude, even though it is true, but still be careful on this one.
This list is just an example, as it does not cover the wide range of arguments that may be given. Hopefully, everything above is pretty understandable so let’s get to the next part of our argumentative essay that is against abortion aka pro-life. It is important to understand that now you need to look at the situation differently, which is considering a murder. If you want to get more into it, try to read the stories of abortion survivors, they may not change your mind if you are pro-choice, but you will definitely shed a tear.
You may use a similar advice here regarding medicine and statistics. Therefore, here are the examples of the pro-life arguments:
- Serious risks during and after procedure: bleeding, damage of cervix or a womb, ectopic pregnancy and even infertility.
- Abortion is a serious stress for a woman’s body and mind. Firstly, many of them regret not giving a birth, and that usually results in depression. Also, there is a higher possibility to get a breast cancer after aborting a baby.
- Many families want to have children but have problems conceiving it. A woman may not abort a baby but give it for adoption so other people can care about it.
- Many women are just being irresponsible by not using contraception. This is a very unfortunate fact, but in many cases, women abort babies just because they don’t use anything to protect themselves from getting pregnant.
- Baby feels the pain while being aborted. There is no common opinion in how many weeks exactly baby starts feeling pain and no doctor will give you the right answer, but when aborted late – it certainly does.
- Baby is alive inside the mother, so as every being it has its rights. If killing a small child or even kicking a pregnant woman in a stomach is a crime, then why it is ok to kill a child that is growing and functioning with a help of his mother?
- In most religions, abortion is a huge sin. This argument is weak if thrown into the atheist’s face, but in other cases, it is pretty effective.
- Aborting a baby is a proof, that human life means nothing. That is where you can turn on your inner philosopher and think deeply about this, but try to stick to the topic.
TIP 6 – Choose the side.
This is the part, where you have enough information to decide whether you are pro-choice or pro-life. Usually, before you even start writing, you know what side you are on. However, in the very beginning, when you just search for the information, you can find the material you have never seen before, and it may completely change your mind and make you rethink many controversial questions that you have had. So at this point, try to be sure which opinion you really support. You may want to reread what you have written so far to understand the choice you make. As you are close to finishing your argumentative essay, be precise about what you want to say. Make reader understand exactly why you support this side. Don’t mention every argument from the main part of an essay, bring something special and original into the explanation.
Persuasive essay on Abortion
Persuasive essay is an essay where you try to convince everybody who reads the paper that a certain idea, which is discussed in it, is absolutely right. It is your opinion on a particular subject that you believe is 100% right. For example, you may want to persuade your boss to raise your salary or to be promoted. It is very useful to enhance your ability to prove your stance, to persuade a reader to take your side or even to change his/her point of view. The task is to show a topic from another angle, so that a reader could change his/her opinion.
Persuasive essays on abortion can highlight the topic from two main sides. In order to start writing it, you should define the position you take on a chosen subject. Decide on the thesis that will perfectly match your arguments. It should be a strong stance expressed in a short assertion, which comes down to one sentence. For example, after making a thorough research on the issue, after checking a variety of reliable sources, opinions of experts and statistical data, you may decide that it is a bad idea, and later you can decide to write a persuasive essay on why abortion should be illegal. As a thesis, you can write that it should be illegal because a fetus is a human being, and it is considered to be a murder, and therefore, abortion is a crime.
When writing this type of an essay, start each paragraph with a mini-thesis statement. It will make your paper cohesive and will support your position accordingly, making it stronger with every paragraph. It is not only important to have your own opinion on the issue, but also to be able to express your beliefs consequently and professionally. Therefore, it is important to know how to write a persuasive essay on abortion correctly. It is important to be objective while writing this type of an essay, to support your claims with real stories, facts, logical explanations, etc. More than that, is if of an exceptional importance to be honest in your essay. Substantiate your arguments with evidence, acknowledging and refuting counterarguments. Pick a couple of ideas defending your opinion and try to persuade a reader that you are right, supplement your arguments with the refutation of a counterargument.
For example, in a 5 paragraph persuasive essay on abortion, there will be one paragraph for introduction, two for claims supported by facts and pieces of evidence, one for the refutation of the counterclaim, and the last paragraph will include a conclusion. It is well-known that there are seven main methods of the induced abortion. Each of them depends on the development of the fetus in the womb. Describe every technique. This could be a good way to introduce the problem to the reader in terms of inhumanity and brutality in the beginning of your paper after you write an introduction for persuasive essay on abortion. Provide the reader with the abovementioned thesis on the issue and proceed to writing next paragraphs which support it with claims followed by pieces of evidence and facts. The following part of the main body can describe a fetus in terms of its affiliation to humanity. Starting from six weeks, it feels pain, from eight weeks it already has fingerprints, after three months the body systems are formed and start functioning. The fetus can hear, sense, sleep, wake up and taste.
The following part of the essay can show the problem from a different angle, in terms of religion, for example. Writing a persuasive essay on abortion is a big challenge, but nevertheless, you can still try to find solid pieces of evidence on the issue in terms of your opinion. The Bible says “You shall not murder”. As the fetus is considered to be a human being, you can use this statement to explain your beliefs against termination of pregnancy. To make it more credible, it should definitely contain some counterarguments and their refutation. It will show that you acknowledge the other side of the issue and take into account the opposing beliefs, not only blindly describing your position and thinking that it is the only possible one.
This is one of the points that distinguish a good persuasive essay on abortion from a bad one. State the counterclaim and refute it. For instance, according to statistics, the most frequent cases of this procedure originate from poverty, negative relationships with partners, and young age. And, you may agree that these life circumstances are considered to be at least hard to combine with an idea of a happy future for the child and its’ mother. But still, it is a rather dangerous surgical interference which can lead to health complications and infertility. There is a risk to make it the last chance to give birth to a child.
Persuasive essay against abortion is designed to persuade the audience, and, therefore, it should be written firmly as you should sound like a real expert. It is also important to mention that from the very beginning, in case the topic was not given to you and you had to develop it yourself, you should take into account that it should be appealing to you. You should be able to argue convincingly on this topic and take into account all opposing opinions. If you reckon that there are no opposite viewpoints on the topic, it means that the topic you’ve chosen is not controversial enough to write a good persuasive essay about abortion. At the same time, if you think that there are too many counterarguments that will be complicated to refute, it would be better to choose another topic. If you want to write a good essay, make sure to dig into persuasive essay topics on abortion and find the most appropriate ones, which will be controversial enough.
This kind of an essay should be relatively short, and as it was mentioned above, it should consist of approximately 5 paragraphs and several pages. Imagine that you have already written the main part of the essay including introduction and 3 main paragraphs, but how to end a persuasive essay on abortion? The conclusion is where you get your ideas together. Here you can list the most compelling arguments and appeal to emotions. In this part of the essay you can expand your statements to a broader meaning, explain why this opinion is important for you, what other issues does this opinion evoke, and what should those who read your essay do after reading it.
A persuasive essay on abortion is a complicated assignment because abortion is a rather sensitive issue to argue about, and you clarify all details you have decided to mention in your essay. You should be sure that you are positioning your point of view clearly enough for understanding, and your opinion should be precise and unambiguous. You should also recheck several times whether your opinion is supported by facts, evidence, logical explanations, experts’ points of views, statistical data or real stories from life. The idea should flow throughout the text coherently. Each paragraph should be connected to one main idea. The counterarguments should be objectively analyzed and persuasively refuted.
Also, it is important to mention that persuasive essay on abortion conclusion should express the importance of your opinion and encourage the reader to take a certain action or start thinking in a certain way. One of the most important parts of writing is a revision. It means that you are supposed to check the text for stylistic and grammatical mistakes, and make sure that everything sounds logically. Maybe you may want to add a new paragraph or rearrange parts of the text body; it is possible that you may want to remove some unconvincing pieces of evidence and replace them with stronger facts.
Even if it is a short persuasive essay on abortion, it still has to sound convincing, stylistically and grammatically correct, as the purpose of this type of paper is to convince everyone that only your opinion on the issue is correct. When you defend the side that speaks out against this interference, you can and should appeal to emotions and credibility as well as to logic (facts, statistics, logical explanations). Your position should be known upfront.
It relates to persuasive speeches against abortion as well. Make an outline for your speech or essay before writing any text. As you now can see, this type of essay or speech has a very clear format. It contains several main elements, which divide the paper into several parts and help to describe your opinion in a clear and convincing way. The outline for a persuasive essay on abortion contains an introduction, where you represent your thesis, body paragraphs that are supposed to focus on one main idea and introduce evidence to support this idea and provide the refutation of opposing arguments, and conclusion. The conclusion should be tied up with the whole text in general, and with each paragraph in particular, summarizing all the information introduced, in terms of the chosen position.
While preparing the abortion persuasive speech outline, make sure to pose a few questions and try to answer them when writing the draft of the speech. Include statistical data on the quantity of abortions performed each year, list all countries that allow termination of pregnancy, mention specific details of the surgical procedure, and assess its safety. Describe the consequences of such interference including long-term and short-term effects. Focus on stages of fetus development and try to investigate the problem of human rights from this point of view. Persuasive speech on abortion should address matters concerning allowing abortions in different countries and cultures at different times and at different stages of gestation. Try to distinguish a matter of free will and necessity. Highlight the preconditions when it may become necessary in terms of medicine, psychological, mental health and life-circumstances. Persuasive essays on abortion should introduce convincing evidence and facts, based on statistics, history, opinions of experts, logical explanations and real life stories. It should persuasively highlight the chosen topic, and its’ thesis in conjunction with the refutation of counterarguments. Stay objective and stick to the facts, appealing to emotions from time to time.
There are a lot of persuasive articles on abortion on the Internet. They can become very helpful in your research on the topic. You can boldly refer to them as well as to other reliable sources of information, such as those mentioned above. In order to illustrate the process of writing this type of paper, it would be reasonable to give a short example of a persuasive essay on abortion.
Abortion is the practice of termination of pregnancy by the removal of the human fetus from the womb. It was forbidden in the United States of America until the well-known court case that took place in 1973, and today it is known as Roe v. Wade case. Roe was the first pregnant woman who won the case, and since then, abortion became legal. Even though a numerous amount of pregnancy termination procedures has been performed since its’ legislation in the U.S., the debate whether it should have been approved is still rather hot and many citizens of the United States continue discussing legalization of abortion. Their opinions are polarized into two main groups: pro-choice and pro-life. The Pro-choice argument is that abortion must be legal, and there should be no interference of the government, and the pro-life argument is that fetus is a human being from the moment of conception, and it is wrong to resort to the abortion in terms of human rights, law, and morality. However, some people claim that abortion must be legal as the fetus is not a human being yet.
Humanity has practiced the termination of pregnancy since ancient times. However, there is no mention of abortion law. Today, the procedure is legal in many countries; it is allowed to perform it on the basis of a woman’s request only, without specifying the reasons for the operation in 29% of all countries. Among the approved reasons are preserving physical and mental health (more than 60% of countries support it), if the pregnancy is a result of incest or rape, it is allowed to terminate it in more than half of the countries, 34% of the countries allow it if women are in poor economic or social conditions. However, it is allowed in 97% of the countries in terms of salvation of a maternal life. At the same time, Stuart W.G. claimed that a fetus is not able to feel pain, and at the early stages of pregnancy, it is just a clump of cells. So is it really a human being?
Bridget, a woman who was pregnant once, found out that her son will never be able to live as a full-fledged human being because of the congenital disease. The legislation of abortion gives her a choice to decide whether or not her son should be born and live with severe medical problems incompatible with life and whether he should suffer during his lifetime.
In conclusion, it should be mentioned that it is a rather sensitive issue that leaves nobody indifferent. However, the debate on it continues to leave the opinion on it uncertain and divided, mostly when it comes to the economic, social, personal reasons, which are considered by many to be insubstantial. However, there are specific circumstances that may cause women from all over the world to resort to the termination of pregnancy. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), the number of operations performed in the countries where it’s legal equals to the amount of operations where it is banned. It is not reasonable to make it illegal, as it will not change the situation, and it will lead to the increase of the number of victims who die from poorly performed surgical procedures. This statement can be used in a high school persuasive essay on abortion, and many previously mentioned ideas can provide a basic understanding of how to write a good essay on this topic. The advanced paper would demand more information and attention to the details.
Research paper on Abortion
As now the subject is rather clear, there are several next steps to take in order to write a good essay on this subject. The first one is narrowing the topic. In order to find an appropriate one among the variety of the abortion research essay topics, use books, articles, encyclopedias and other reliable literature to define the final topic. While looking through the above-listed sources, try to find the information about people who have faced the issue, define your own point of view on the topic, explain to yourself why it is considered to be an important subject to write about and, how, when and where has the problem developed. This will be rather helpful in order to make your topic clear and give the further understanding of how to write a research paper on abortion. For example, “termination of abortion should be illegal” is a good topic, but it may not be good enough. The better topic would be the one answering the question why you think it should be illegal. So, the better topic would be: “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because a fetus is considered to be a human being.”
There is a vast variety of the abortion research paper topics to choose from, all you need to do is to find the most appropriate for the requirements of your research. The next step would be to define your thesis or objectives. You should keep in mind that it is better to avoid a form of question and it should be written in a sentence, and you will have to exclude such phrases as “I think”, “In my opinion”, “To my mind”, “From my point of view”, and the paper should not be written in a figurative language. Your purpose in writing of this type of paper is to prove the validity of your thesis. Therefore, the thesis should not be an indisputable fact or a point of view that can’t be proven. For example, “It is ethically and legally wrong to resort to the termination of pregnancy as a developing embryo can be equated with a human life.” After you are done with the abortion research paper thesis, compose a good outline of the essay. It will organize your notes when you start the investigation. Start with listing the themes that you want to highlight in your paper. Then, divide the topics into main topics and subtopics. Your outline should contain an introduction and a thesis statement, several paragraphs of the body and conclusion. You can also think of a format in which you will write the essay; it can be written in chronological order or in a comparison-contrast format. Abortion research paper outline example is the following:
- Introduction (thesis at the end) “It is ethically and legally right to resort to the mentioned above procedure as a developing embryo cannot be equated with a human life.”
- Main body:
- Statistics, laws
- Stages of fetus development
- Conscious awareness
As you can see, the introduction paragraph for abortion essay of this type should be formed of general information on the topic, a short historical review, and a thesis statement. It should also capture the reader’s attention and shortly introduce the main ideas. The main body should expand the ideas from each section of the outline. And the conclusion should summarize your research and prove your thesis. If you decide to write a research paper against abortion, make sure to explain your position on why you are against it, search for reliable sources that demonstrate the negative influence of such procedures, introduce the real testimonies of those who have resorted to it, discuss the political and social matter of the issue, use scientific research that defends your statement. Drawing upon your outline and notes, you can also turn to research questions about abortion. They can be different, for example, is it a matter of human rights or, are is it a matter of women rights, or maybe both? Should people reference to Bible when discussing this issue? Is it better to make it illegal and would it be a good or bad decision?
After you have finished your final outline, it’s time to start writing a draft. Eventually, this draft will be revised and there no need to focus on stylistic requirements and avoiding grammatical mistakes. You should focus on the content of the research essay on abortion, taking into account your outline, drawing upon your notes. After having completed the draft, check if each topic in the main body correlates with the thesis, also take notice of pieces of evidence, check if each idea is supported by facts. After that, compose a final draft. Here you should pay attention to stylistic requirements of the paper. It should contain citations and references, title page if required. These steps can help you start completing your assignment and elucidate how to write the research paper. We do hope that these tips will help you write an excellent paper, and in case you face too many difficulties, you can buy research paper online at our website.
Cause and effect essay on Abortion
A cause and effect essay is a paper where writer introduces causes and then describes the possible implications. First, you should decide what should be the cause and what exactly should be the effect. If the termination of pregnancy is the cause, then you will want to describe possible consequences, such as physiological and psychological complications. If the procedure is the effect, you will describe the causes that have led to this measure. Choose your strategy and mind that the essay can be informative or convincing. It will give direction to the flow of the essay while gathering data and making notes. Usually, this type of an essay consists of 5 paragraphs, including introduction, a paragraph where the cause of the issue is introduced, the paragraph where the effect is highlighted, and the paragraph where these two are combined. As usual, they are followed by the conclusion. We believe that the tips mentioned above will help, but if you need more information on how to write a good cause and effect essay, you can always count on us and ask our support team in chat.
Satire essay on Abortion
This type of an essay uses irony, humor, and hyperbole to ridicule the topic. This essay is intended to entertain the readers, but it also should be eye-opening and useful. The main purpose is to make readers see the absurdity of the issue, which is discussed. You can resort to exaggeration in order to criticize it or say something absolutely opposite to what you really mean to express discrepancy between the expectations and real happening. Make jokes in order to receive the desirable reaction, because this is the shortest way to make the reader think as you do. For example, “men should be illegal” – is a bright example of a satirical expression in terms of the issue under discussion.
Explository essay on Abortion
This type of essay implies the explanation of a certain topic or a number of ideas to a particular audience. It doesn’t require a deep research; it rather demands your own thoughts on the issue. It has basic requirements, though. It contains an introduction and thesis, main body and conclusion. It also should be a 5-paragraph essay, where the main body consists of three paragraphs. It can be more sections of the main body, but not less. So let’s start with the details. The subject is abortion; the topic can be “Abortion should be illegal”, and the thesis “Abortion should be illegal, because it is inhuman”. A 5-page essay on abortion can comprehensively describe the topic and explain the main points. Compose your outline, list certain examples, which can demonstrate the main points of your topic. It can be a personal experience or real stories from life. Make sure that there is a connection between the thesis and examples. In conclusion, it is better to give a concise overview in conjunction with a forecast or recommendations for the future. Hopefully, writing an expository essay won’t be that hard for you now!
Important of Abortion essay outline
Before starting to write the essay and after conducting a proper research on the subject, you should compose the outline. Define the appropriate topic on abortion. Introduction paragraph should highlight the subject of the paper; in this case, the subject is the termination of pregnancy. In this section the reader should also be informed on how the paper is organized, it can be a concise introduction of general evidence that proves your thesis. And the last part of it should be the thesis. It should clearly express your point of view on the topic. For example, if the topic is “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal”, the thesis should be “The termination of pregnancy should be illegal because it is inhumane”. This is what the essay on abortion introduction should be.
The main body of the essay should be composed of arguments connected to the thesis supported by evidence. If required, there can also be several counterarguments and their refutation. Termination of pregnancy is a rather sensitive subject to write about; it is recommended to choose the abortion counterarguments, that you can convincingly refute in order to link it to the thesis. It is especially effective in the essay on pros and cons of abortion. The main body is followed by a conclusion. Make sure that it concisely restates all the main arguments supporting the main idea, summarize all the introduced information in order to tie it up to the thesis.
In order to make your writing project really attractive, you should use some writing techniques, which can notably improve and mark it out among the numerous amount of others. There are a lot of abortion essays on the Internet, and in order to make someone want to read yours, you should define the audience that you are addressing in your paper. Depending on the audience, the tactic will also change. For example, if your audience is a professor, the method of drawing attention will differ from the one when you are addressing your topic to your classmates or groupmates, as well as other possible social groups. Define if your target group is captive. If it is a professor or an admission person, your objective will be to encourage them to give you a good grade or to persuade them to admit you into the university. And besides, they are obliged to read your paper, because it is their job. When the target group is not paid for reading your project, you should think about how to draw their attention so that they would be interested in reading particularly your paper, because there is a huge chance that they will skip your paper and choose another one instead.
As there was mentioned before, termination of pregnancy is a rather popular topic and the abortion essay hooks will be a lifeline of your paper. When you understand what your audience is, the next step is to figure out what your readers want to read about, what are they interested in. Are they looking for entertainment? Are they willing to solve their problem? Maybe they want to find some particular information? Or they are interested in your personal thoughts? There are no strict rules of composing a good hook.
Basically, it’s one or two sentences at the beginning of your project, which serve to catch the readers’ attention. After defining the target group and its motivation, define the purpose of your paper. It can be an argumentative essay or a persuasive essay, it can also be a cause and effect essay or satiric essay, it can be a research project or expository essay, etc. Depending on the type of paper, the purpose will change. In some cases, the purpose is to describe the topic, and in others, it is to convince the reader in your rightness regarding the arguments that you provide on the matter. Sometimes, it has to be an informative writing or a descriptive one, and sometimes it is exploratory. A good hook should be supposed to evoke some feelings, and you are to determine what they should feel like after reading it, motivated to act in a certain way or become interested in your life story, get scared or entertained. A good hook represents the objective of your paper and what you want to share with. To make it completely clear, you can look through several abortion essay examples, which have similar objectives to your own essay, so it can be rather helpful.
Here are some examples of good hooks for abortion essays:
- Denying abortion is sexist
- Rape v. Abortion
- Would the unborn choose to die or live?
- Poverty is not an excuse for abortion
- Your baby is unwanted. Will it become a new John Snow?
How to choose a good topic?
When you are writing an argumentative essay, you should focus on choosing a good topic. It is one of the most sensitive issues to write about. It belongs to ten of the most disputable themes: animal rights and experimentation, breast cancer, death penalty, border control, genetic cloning, human trafficking, plastic surgery, and pharmaceutical industry. Argument essay topics on abortion can be narrowed to the specific position on pro-life or pro-choice. Your task is to define which position you will defend and from what point of view. You can highlight it in terms of religion, morality, law, human rights, ethics, health, etc. For example, “Should abortion be illegal?”, “Is it inhumane?”, “Is it always right or is it always wrong?”, etc.
Closing sentence for Abortion essay
The conclusion is intended to summarize the entire project; this is where you should revise your hook sentence, your thesis, and major ideas. There is a wide range of abortion research topics to choose from, here is the list of possible interesting ones:
- Should grandparents interfere into the taking the decision on termination of pregnancy?
- Should a woman be forced to resort to this procedure by law in some cases?
- Should women have a restricted number of possible abortions throughout their lives?
The best way to learn how to write not just a good but a top-notch essay on abortion is to follow the instructions in conjunction with following the best essay examples. It will give you an idea of how to compose a well-structured paper. Good samples are sophisticated and contain an advanced vocabulary; they are saturated with rich sentence structure and complex grammatical structures.
At the same time, examples of abortion essays can be useful in demonstrating the basic principles of writing, they represent the structure of the required type of work and help you understand the flow of the idea: where is the thesis statement, what is a good hook, how arguments and pieces of evidence correlate with the thesis statement and how a good ending should sound like. They can help you look at the topic comprehensively revealing the issue from different sides, giving you direction and inspiring you. Abortion essay outline example can inspire you to write a really decent outline for your own topic, boosting the writing process and accelerating it. They can also become very helpful to save your time, give you direction and focus on the most important ideas, which are already gathered together in the best way.
There is no need to reinvent the wheel, all you will need to do is to make it original, unique, and bright in terms of language and supporting evidence. As it was mentioned before, a sample essay on abortion can not only give an insight of the practical application of a certain style or literature device, but it can encourage you, relying upon the recognized analog of the best variant of the required paper, to write your own masterpiece. Using the best solutions from different samples, you can win the attention of your audience and achieve the desired effect. If you are stuck with your research or feel a lack of time, or you have a very important essay that is vital for your future, as an assignment, it would be a good idea to resort to a free essay on abortion as soon as possible. In the combination of following the instructions on the structure and style with your own efforts, it will quickly give you a notion of where to start from and how to move on, how to make it comprehensive, grammatically and stylistically correct, rich in terms of language and content.
Now when you have a guideline about how to write research papers, argumentative essays, and corresponding types of papers, you may want to take a look at abortion research paper examples, argumentative essays and other examples of different types of papers on this topic. You can easily find them on the Internet and on our website as well.
Other useful information
The two opposing points of views can indicate advantages and disadvantages of termination of pregnancy. In the advantages of abortion essays, one can highlight the issue in terms of the positive effect of this measure. For example, to emphasize the positive side of this procedure, you can focus on various aspects. For example, unsafe termination of abortion increases the risk of death, it should be conducted under the law and by professionals only; it is a rather disputable issue to give a birth to the child who was conceived as a result of rape or incest; sometimes to save a woman’s life this is an option, embryo and fetus are just a clump of cells, would it be cruel to give birth to a disabled fetus? The positive effects of abortion essays can describe the issue in terms of the possible life course of a woman who took a decision to resort to the procedure. If she is a teenager, she will get an opportunity to devote herself to the education; if she is unmarried, she will increase her chances to get married; if she is poor, she will be able to stand on her own feet and give birth to the child at a better time, so that the child will be able to grow in a full family of mature and educated parents.
If you are to write a disadvantages of abortion essay, it would be reasonable to stick to the following arguments. Physical and psychological complications can follow the procedure of termination of pregnancy, a woman can experience health complications and unbearable sense of guilt throughout her entire life, it can also cause a pressure from the society, it can also lead to infertility. Consequences of abortion essay should describe the issue from both sides. It should be mentioned that professionals recommend resorting to the termination of pregnancy at the earliest stages of pregnancy because the later it’s conducted, the more dangers and risks can arise. It can cause long-term effects and short-term effects. Among the long-term consequences are health complications and death. The short-term effects include increased breast cancer risk, infertility, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual dysfunction.
However, the issue can remain a philosophical question, even though it has a practical influence on a daily life of humanity. You can still try to find the answer to this question posing it in a philosophical essay on abortion. Humanity representatives of different cultures and countries have not established a common understanding of what is right regarding this extremely debatable topic. Basically, you are required to consider the issue in accordance with the necessary thesis. You should explain it, provide the supporting arguments, offer an objection and defend your thesis against the objection to it, describe the issue in terms of pros and cons, provide the reader with possible consequences it might have. There is a good example of a decent philosophical essay on the topic by Carl Sagan. Carl Sagan essay on abortion raises the most arguable questions regarding the debatable issue. For example, at what moment life begins? Should the right to live depend on circumstances of conception? What history tells us about abortion? What attitude does religion reveal in its’ texts? Should humanity look at it from one side or should it stop putting it to the extremes? All these questions can and should be raised in essays on abortion in order to highlight the topic in the best way.
If you are looking for custom essay writing services, Pro-Papers.com will complete a top-quality paper on abortion for you.
Category: Academic writing, Essay paper writing
Most Common Arguments (in this order):
My Body/My Choice
Life of the Mother
The Unborn Child Is Unfit/Unwanted
Abortion Is Already Legal — Stop Trying to Change It
By far the most common response we received in terms of difficult pro-abortion arguments dealt with matters of rape and incest. Here is just a sample of your replies articulating this commonly cited position:
“If a child is conceived from rape or incest, why is it fair to subject her to nine months of pregnancy that involves a reminder every day of what she went through?”
“I had somebody give the hypothetical situation of ‘What if my 11-year-old, small-framed daughter got pregnant after being raped, and the doctor said her still-developing body is in danger if she carries the baby to term?”
“My brother told me a female friend of his was gang-raped by three men and she became pregnant. She chose to have an abortion. He doesn’t think her decision was wrong. How do I change his mind about choosing abortion under these circumstances, and still show compassion for his female friend who was brutally raped?”
It’s interesting to note that rape and incest are arguably the most common objections used in support of the legalization of abortion, yet abortions due to rape and incest account for less than 1 percent of all abortions in the United States.1 That should immediately tell us something about why abortion proponents use the rape and incest argument so often — it is the most emotionally gripping objection and can be powerfully applied despite its actual infrequency.
Another point worth noting is that rape and incest are often lumped together in these arguments, yet they are not synonymous. Though it’s hard for most of us to comprehend, some instances of incest may be consensual. A baby conceived in such a situation may be aborted to avoid family shame, out of fear of a genetic abnormality, or due to the oddity of having a child that doesn’t fit well in a convoluted family tree. In cases where incest is forced, the reasons for an abortion are similar to those involving rape.
Rape, of course, is a violent crime resulting in a deeply wounded victim. In defending the life of the unborn child, we must be careful not to minimize the harm inflicted on the mother. The act is horrible and offensive, and it is emotionally, physically, and sometimes spiritually debilitating to women. In my view, the perpetrator should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law for forcing himself on a female, in the most intimate way, for his own selfish satisfaction.
When the mother is the victim of rape, abortion advocates generally speak out on her behalf using the following logic: the mother has been brutally victimized. To force her to endure a pregnancy she didn’t want and give birth to a baby who will be a constant reminder of the rapist only inflicts more damage on the mother.
So how do we respond? Shouldn’t we stand by the rape victim and help her avoid more pain and suffering? Before you defend the rape/incest pro-abortion argument, please consider the following three points:
1. Should we kill another human being because we have been victimized?
We agree it isn’t fair when a woman is raped and then faces the crises and hardships that come with an unplanned pregnancy. In fact, it is tragic. But does it give her or anyone else the moral right to kill an innocent human being?
Imagine you are robbed and beaten at gunpoint. You have months of suffering and healing ahead of you, and it may take years to recover from the psychological impact. The crimes committed against you were unfair — do you now have the right to kill an innocent stranger on the street because you’ve been victimized?
Of course not.
Yet somehow we find it morally acceptable to kill an unborn child — an innocent third party who was conceived from a rape. But if we truly believe that life inside the womb holds the same intrinsic value as life outside of it, then this argument collapses on itself. All unborn children —at every stage of development — should be afforded an equal right to life, regardless of how they’re conceived.
2. Should we kill an unborn baby because once born, he or she may remind the mother of her attacker?
As pro-life apologist Scott Klusendorf argues, since when did we become okay with killing another human being because he or she reminds us of a painful event? Husbands and wives divorce. Children become estranged from their parents. Friends sever their relationships. Do we have the right to kill someone just because seeing that person again may be painful?
Untold numbers of women have borne children conceived from rape and then either placed those children for adoption or raised them with grace and love.
Frankly, I believe the argument that women can’t raise children conceived in rape because the child reminds her of the crime actually demeans women. Are women not strong enough to conquer the negative impact of rape and raise a child or place the child for adoption? Do they not have the will and compassion to love the child despite the pain of a horrible crime? Do they not have the power to turn an act of evil into an act of grace? Women are far stronger than this argument implies.
3. Should we kill another human being because he or she isn’t wanted?
There are certainly cases where a rape victim doesn’t want a child or isn’t ready to raise a child. But there are also mothers who aren’t victims of rape who confess they didn’t want children or weren’t ready to have them when they discovered they were pregnant. Is it okay to kill these toddlers because they weren’t initially wanted or planned?
Again, the abortion advocate gets away with this point because most of our culture legitimately devalues life in the womb — whether we’re conscious of it or not. But if we correctly view the unborn child as being equal in value to the toddler, then we must defend and protect the unborn child whether or not he or she is wanted. Our value as humans isn’t derived from an external circumstance such as desire. We are valuable because of our intrinsic nature as human beings.
My Body/My Choice
The second most popular pro-abortion argument we struggle with is the “My Body/My Choice” dilemma. Let’s take a look at some of your submissions about how this argument is phrased:
“It’s fine for you to personally feel pro-life, but why are you making it a legislative issue? Why are you pushing your morals on others?”
“Keep your laws out of my uterus.”
“The baby doesn’t have the right to use the mother’s body for nine months.”
“Don’t like abortion? Don’t have one.”
The idea that a baby is just part of a woman’s body defies science. The decision to abort doesn’t involve just one body — it involves killing another human being that has his or her own body. Though a zygote or an embryo is not yet fully developed, both are human beings, both have substance, and both have bodies. You and I are just more mature versions of the zygotes we once were.
A zygote is a unique being that is distinct from the mother. He or she has 46 unique chromosomes and is internally driven to grow into more mature stages. Therefore, a zygote is fully human — as is an embryo, a fetus, and a born baby.
So when a woman trumpets her right to have an abortion by claiming, “My body, my choice,” she is ignoring the facts of life and medical science. Ironically, this right only pertains to females of a certain age, as roughly 50 percent of the 1.2 million unborn children who are aborted in America every year are females. [Citation to support statistic?] What about their bodies? What about their rights?
Let me respond specifically to the questions you submitted regarding the Body/Rights argument:
“Why are you making it a legislative issue? Why are you pushing your morals on others?”and “Keep your laws out of my uterus.”
A very common claim of the pro-abortion movement is that the government should not tell women what to do with their bodies. In 1999, Hillary Clinton said, “Being pro-choice is trusting the individual to make the right decision for herself and her family, and not entrusting the decision to anyone wearing the authority of government in any regard.”2In other words, morality cannot be legislated.
That is a ridiculous and uninformed claim because that is one of the primary functions of laws — to legislate and enforce morality. Why can’t we steal money from a bank? Because it is wrong to take money from other people. Why can’t we beat our children? Because child abuse is morally wrong. Why can’t we shoot and kill our noisy neighbor? Because murder is wrong and against the law. Of course we legislate morality. Government exists to do just that for the protection and defense of its people.
But going back to Hillary Clinton’s comments, if a woman exercised her right to choose to beat her toddler to death, would we say, “We’re just trusting her to make the right decision for herself and her family” and “We wouldn’t want to entrust that decision to anyone with governmental authority”? No, we’d want the government to step in and protect the child. We’d want the government to enforce the law and impose morality on the mother — whether she wants it or not. In other words, we want the government to legislate morality.
Again, this argument only works if we accept the flawed premise that toddlers are worth something and unborn children are worth nothing. But if we agree that both are infinitely valuable members of the human race, then both should have the full protection of the government and its agencies.
2. “The baby doesn’t have the right to use the mother’s body for nine months.”
Let’s carry this argument to its next logical conclusion: Does an infant have the right to nurse after he or she is born? Does an infant have the right to be put to bed, carried, cared for, changed, or nurtured after birth?
Pro-life apologist Scott Klusendorf calls this “degree of dependency.” Since when do we have the moral right to kill someone based on his or her degree of dependency on another person? A toddler is more dependent than a teenager (well, sometimes). Do we have the right to kill the toddler but not the teenager?
Additionally, this argument assumes the baby is somehow intentionally enslaving the mother for his or her own selfish purposes. In the majority of abortion cases, the abortion is a procedure of convenience after unprotected sex. The mother elected to have sex that resulted in a pregnancy. Should we now kill the unborn baby because he or she was conceived — and may potentially inconvenience someone — due to the mother’s choice to have sex?
3. “Don’t like abortion? Don’t have one.”
What if we said, “Don’t like rape? Don’t rape anyone”? How would that statement go over on a bumper sticker today? While it serves as a catchy slogan, this argument collapses on itself when applied to any other immoral action.
Life of the Mother
The third most popular question was how to respond when the life of the mother is at stake.
It is my personal view that this is the only morally acceptable, although still extremely difficult, justification for taking the life of an unborn child. I have many good and thoughtful pro-life friends — including some people on staff here at Human Coalition — who disagree with me about this. They maintain there are no morally acceptable reasons for taking the life of an unborn child. I deeply appreciate that perspective. Both views indicate an intimate appreciation for the sacredness of life inside and outside the womb.
One of the fairest discussions on this topic is found in chapter 3 of Feinberg and Feinberg’s Ethics for a Brave New World, and I recommend this book to you.
It’s worth noting a few cautions and clarifications when dealing with this issue: the “health” of the mother and the “life” of the mother are two very different things. For decades, the “health of the mother” has been used to justify abortion for almost any reason. Because “health” is virtually impossible to define, a woman who is even mildly upset that she is pregnant can abort her child under this ambiguous phrase. Be wary of this critical distinction.
Another twist of words to be cautious of is “the health of the mother is threatened” versus “the life of the mother is threatened.” Pro-life advocates generally maintain that abortion is not morally permissible if the pregnancy may result in a decline in the mother’s health but isn’t ultimately fatal. Gestational diabetes is an example of a condition that is contracted during pregnancy, but it normally doesn’t kill the mother and is a treatable disease.
Morally speaking, the life of the mother and child are both priceless. Thus, the child’s life should be preserved, and the mother’s health should be treated and preserved as well. In those very rare cases where the life of the mother is genuinely at risk, difficult decisions must be made.
Sometimes issues regarding the health of the mother have nothing to do with the pregnancy. There have been numerous stories in the news recently about moms with cancer choosing to bear their children while refusing potentially lifesaving treatments in order to preserve the lives of their children. Sometimes the mother survives; other times the mother dies. I’m not sure any greater examples of maternal courage and sacrifice exist.
In cases where the life of the mother is genuinely threatened either because of the pregnancy or because of a pre-existing condition that can’t be treated because of the pregnancy, the family must make heartrending decisions. Prayer, comfort, support, and compassion should be extended to all during this time.
In all cases, however, I must stress that all medical and spiritual options, tools, and procedures should be implemented to attempt to preserve BOTH lives. All life is precious, and all innocent life should be protected.
The fourth most common pro-abortion argument you face deals with personhood. Here are some of your comments:
“It’s not a person yet.”
“It’s a potential life.”
“It’s a blob of cells.”
1. The “blob of cells” argument is uniformly refuted by science.
At the moment of fertilization, a zygote is created. The zygote has DNA provided by both parents and, therefore, all of the genetic information to develop into more mature stages. The zygote period lasts about four days. He or she develops into a blastocyst for some 14 days, and then develops into an embryo. After nine weeks post-conception, he or she is termed a fetus. [Comment: would it be helpful to have a citation here?]
From zygote to delivered baby, he or she is a human being. There is no point during development when he or she matures into a human or somehow “turns human.” He or she is a unique human being from the point of fertilization.
Though there are numerous definitions of what it means to be “alive,” the most common criteria scientists use to determine life are if something has the capacity to grow, metabolize, respond to stimuli, adapt, and reproduce. Thus, from the time of fertilization, the zygote is alive because he or she possesses all of these qualities. The baby’s sex can be derived as early as five to nine days after conception. His or her heart beats around day 24, and brain waves can be detected as early as day 43. [Again, would a citation be helpful here?] There is no point during development when he or she is an inanimate blob of cells.
[NOTE: Since the argument has been made that science is on the side of the pro-life arguments, citations to these facts seem helpful.]
2. This brief biology lessons also refutes the “potential life” argument.
Emily Letts, the 25-year-old woman who recently filmed her own abortion, pronounced, “Yes, I do realize it was a potential life. I have a special relationship with my ultrasound.” Her statement is confounding and paradoxical. The idea of “potential life” is folly. We are either alive or dead. We are not “potentially” alive any more than we can be “potentially dead.” We either exhibit the qualities of living beings or we don’t. Letts willingly killed the life inside of her and instead has a “special relationship” with the sonogram picture of her now deceased child.
The idea of “potential life” presumes that something has the ability to, at some point in the future, become alive. But as our brief look at the zygote confirms, he or she is alive at the point of conception. Through internal self-direction, he or she is growing, metabolizing, responding to various stimuli, adapting to the environment, and already has the necessary genetic material in place for reproduction.
3. “It’s not a person yet.”
The question of personhood is really the crux of the pro-abortion argument. But if you run across a pro-abortion advocate who brings up this claim, just ask this simple question: What is the distinction between a person and a human being?
Using Scott Klusendorf’s SLED examples, here are some typical responses and refutations to the various personhood arguments:
1. When a fetus gets to a certain size, they are now a person. Since when does size (S) determine value? Is a toddler worth less than a teenager because the toddler is smaller? What size determines our personhood and who determines that?
2. We can abort a fetus before he or she feels pain. We agree that fetuses are less developed than we are. But should we kill them because they are so? People in their sleep, on anesthesia, or with certain health conditions don’t feel pain. Can we kill them? Why does level of development (L) determine value?
3. When the baby is born, they are now a person. Since when does location determine value? Am I worth more inside a house than I am outside on the lawn? There are many pro-abortion advocates who believe we should value the baby in the womb — but only at a certain age. So which is it? Inside or outside of the womb? Why does environment (E) determine value?
4. Before a baby reaches viability, they can be aborted. Does degree of dependency (D) determine value? Infants are completely dependent on others for sustenance. Can we kill them because they are dependent on us? Why does viability outside the womb determine value? 3
Morally speaking, there is no difference in value between a zygote and an adult. There is no distinction between a person and a human being. The pro-abortion industry uses the personhood argument because science has proven beyond all doubt that zygotes are members of the human race. So pro-abortion advocates had to come up with some other reason to kill unborn babies that wasn’t based on science. They made arbitrary (and frequently changing) definitions of personhood in order to advance their abortion agenda. Don’t get caught in that trap. In the words of the immortal Dr. Seuss, “A person is a person no matter how small.”
The Unborn Child Is Unfit/Unwanted
Although this was the fifth most popular response in our survey, this is actually the number one reason why men and women abort their children today. They simply don’t want a child.
This argument takes numerous forms:
“If a baby has Down syndrome, she should be aborted. She will have a tough life anyhow, and her family will struggle with a special needs child.”
“Better to be aborted than adopted by a pervert.”
“The world is overpopulated and resources are limited. We need abortion to control the planet’s resources.”
“What will become of a baby born into a drug-infested home?”
“I don’t want a child right now. I can’t afford it.”
1. “I can’t afford a child right now.”
With an overwhelming number of abortions being performed because of inconvenience and/or financial constraints, the Unfit/Unwanted argument is the primary cultural assumption we must aggressively defeat. Fortunately, it is one of the simplest to refute. Again, I refer to Scott Klusendorf who trains people using a concept called “trot out the toddler.”4 If we agree with science, medicine, ethics, and philosophy, then we agree that life in the womb is equal in value to human life outside the womb.
So when someone claims that if a pregnant woman wants an abortion because she claims she can’t afford a baby, we have an easy response: “If the mother has a toddler, why not kill him? The toddler is probably more expensive than the baby anyhow. The mother will save more money killing the toddler than the unborn child.”
2. “If a baby has Down syndrome, she should be aborted. She will have a tough life anyhow, and her family will struggle with a special needs child.”
The “trot out the toddler” argument can again be applied to those who claim that “unborn babies with defects should be aborted. It’s better that they aren’t a burden to society.” Our reply should then be: “Why not kill toddlers with Down Syndrome, too? How about toddlers in wheelchairs, or toddlers with birth defects or cystic fibrosis?” If we are okay killing them in the womb, then why not kill them outside the womb as well?
3. “Some babies shouldn’t be born into harmful homes. It’s better if they never have to experience that.”
Okay, what about preschoolers who are living in those conditions now? Why not kill them and save them years of pain and hurt at home? “Trotting out the toddler” forces the abortion advocate to defend why the unborn is less valuable than those of us already born. ALL of these arguments are based on the assumption that life in the womb is expendable but life outside of it is not. Would we seriously considering killing a five-year-old because his parents abuse him? Of course not — we’d work to protect and defend the child. Why are we okay with killing a child in the womb simply because of the potential that he or she may be born into a difficult home?
Would we kill a child with Down Syndrome because his conditions make caring for him more of a challenge than caring for a child who does not have Down Syndrome? If that were the case, why do we have unique events like the Special Olympics that honor kids with disabilities?
Make the abortion advocate define and defend why life in the womb is worthless. It’s an argument that can’t be won based on science or ethics. The premise of the pro-life position is that the value of an unborn child’s life is not determined by whether or not her parents want her or will be good parents. The value of the child’s life is based on the fact that the child is a member of the human race, created by God with a special purpose and amazing potential — the same value as toddlers.
Abortion Is Already Legal — Stop Trying to Change It
Finally, I will address one more argument that commonly surfaces when debating abortion: “Abortion is the law of the land — deal with it.” My response? Slavery was once legal in this country. Not permitting women to vote was once legal. Should we have continued those practices just because they were legal?
This is probably the flimsiest of the pro-abortion arguments. Just because something is legal doesn’t make it right or moral. I wrote about this at length in my book Abortion: The Ultimate Exploitation of Women,and so I refer you to that resource. Suffice it to say that Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton are both examples of terrible laws. Not only is Roe v. Wade a sloppy decision that doesn’t even bother to address when life begins, but both laws are contradicted by another federal law that has been on the books for the last several years.
Laci and Conner’s Law protects unborn children, at any stage of development, from over 60 acts of violence.5 Reread that last sentence. Today there is a federal law that protects unborn children of any age from violent acts caused by other people.
But Laci and Conner’s Law makes a specific exemption for abortion. So the baby’s life is protected by the federal government if a woman, man, or child hurts the unborn child in the womb. But the baby’s life is deemed worthless if the mother kills the child through abortion.
In America today, the value of a baby’s life is determined by the person who harms him or her. The child is infinitely valuable if a father harms the child through a non-abortive act, but the child is worth nothing if the mother kills the unborn baby through an abortion. It’s lunacy. No other class of person is given value by the person who harms them. Our federal laws simultaneously provide for both the protection of and the killing of unborn children. It just depends on who harms the child.
So the next time someone tells you to stop complaining about abortion because it’s the law, ask them to explain why both Roe v. Wade and Laci and Conner’s Law are federal mandates. And then ask them if they want to bring back slavery.