Essay On Natural Beauty Of Assam

For other uses, see Assam (disambiguation).

Assam
State

Assam's Kaziranga National Park is home to most of the world's one-horned rhinoceroses, the state animal of Assam

Coordinates (Dispur): 26°08′N91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77Coordinates: 26°08′N91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77
Country India
Statehood26 January 1960
CapitalDispur
Largest cityGuwahati
Districts33
Government
 • GovernorJagdish Mukhi[1]
 • Chief MinisterSarbananda Sonowal (BJP)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (126 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency14
 • High CourtGauhati High Court
Area
 • Total78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi)
Area rank17th
Highest elevation1,960 m (6,430 ft)
Lowest elevation25 m (82 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total31,205,576
 • Rank15th
 • Density397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
HDI 0.598 (medium)
HDI rank15th (2016)
Literacy72.19 % (19th)[2]
Official languages[3]Assamese
Bengali(in 3 districts in the Barak Valley}
Websiteassam.gov.in
First recognised as an administrative division on 1 April 1911, and led to the establishment of Assam Province by partitioning Province of East Bengal and Assam.
^[*] Assam was one of the original provincial divisions of British India.
^[*] Assam has had a legislature since 1937.[4]

Assam (English:,  listen (help·info)) is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and the state of Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India.

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Etymology of Assam

The precise etymology of modern anglicised word "Assam" is ambiguous. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, and alternatively, Pragjyotisha.[5] In medieval times the Mughals used Asham (eastern Assam) and Kamrup (western Assam),[6][7][8] and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders[9] the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama ("unequalled", "peerless", etc.) was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati,[10] and more recent authors have concurred that it is a latter-day Sanskritization of a native name.[11] Among possible origins are Tai (A-Cham)[12] and Bodo (Ha-Sam).[13]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Assam

Pre-history[edit]

Further information: Danava dynasty, Indo-Aryan migration to Assam, Bhauma dynasty, and Asura Kingdom

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making.[14]

Legendary[edit]

According to a late text, Kalika Purana (c. 9th–10th century AD), the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav of the Danava dynasty, which was removed by Naraka who established the Naraka dynasty. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta became the king, who (it is mentioned in the Mahabharata) fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. At the same time towards east in central Assam, Asura Kingdom was ruled by indigenous line of kings of Mariachi dynasty.[15]

Ancient[edit]

Further information: Kamarupa

Samudragupta's 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa (Western Assam)[16] and Davaka (Central Assam)[17] as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire.

Davaka was later absorbed by Kamarupa, which grew into a large kingdom that spanned from Karatoya river to near present Sadiya and covered the entire Brahmaputra valley, North Bengal, parts of Bangladesh and, at times Purnea and parts of West Bengal.[18]

The kingdom was ruled by three dynasties; the Varmanas (c. 350–650 CE), the Mlechchha dynasty (c.655–900 CE) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c. 900–1100 CE), from their capitals in present-day Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura), Tezpur (Haruppeswara) and North Gauhati (Durjaya) respectively. All three dynasties claimed descent from Narakasura.

In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman (c. 600–650 AD), the Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was extended to c. 1255 AD by the Lunar I (c. 1120–1185 AD) and Lunar II (c. 1155–1255 AD) dynasties.[14]

Medieval[edit]

Further information: Kamata kingdom, Ahom kingdom, Chutiya kingdom, Kachari kingdom, and Baro-Bhuyan

Three later dynasties were the Ahoms, the Chutiya and the Koch.

The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam[19] The Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam with the modern town of Sibsagar as their capital and brought the whole tract down to the border of the modern district of Goalpara permanently under their sway. Ahoms ruled for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) with major expansions in the early 16th century at the cost of Chutia and Dimasa Kachari kingdoms. Since c. the 13th century AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended to the Karatoya River in the 17th or 18th century. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungphaa or Sworgodeu Rudra Sinha (c. 1696–1714 AD).

The Chutiya rulers (1187–1673 AD) held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 AD. The rivalry between the Chutiyas and Ahoms for the supremacy of eastern Assam led to a series of battles between them from the early 16th century until the start of the 17th century, which saw great loss of men and money.

The Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in Western Assam and present North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Nara Narayan (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 AD, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms.

Among other dynasties, the Kacharis (13th century-1854 AD) ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam and had their capital at Dimapur. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by the early 17th century, the Chutiya areas were annexed and since c. 1536 AD the Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar, and more as an Ahom ally than a competing force.

Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. Though the Mughals made seventeen attempts to invade, they were never successful. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon (c. 1662–63 AD), the then capital, but found it difficult to prevent guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha, at Saraighat in 1671 almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. The Mughals were finally expelled from Lower Assam during the reign of Gadadhar Singha in 1682 AD.[citation needed]

Colonial era[edit]

Further information: Colonial Assam and Assam Province

The discovery of Camellia sinensis in 1834 in Assam was followed by testing in 1836–37 in London. The British allowed companies to rent land from 1839 onwards. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Eastern Assam,[20] where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported labourers from China and hostility from native Assamese resulted in the migration of forced labourers from central and eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable variety for Assam. By the 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. The industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during the 1870s.

Despite the commercial success, tea labourers continued to be exploited,[clarification needed] working and living under poor conditions.[clarification needed] Fearful of greater government interference, the tea growers formed the Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby to retain the status quo. The organisation was successful in this, but even after India’s independence, conditions of the labourers have improved very little.[21]

In the later part of the 18th century, religious tensions and atrocities by the nobles led to the Moamoria rebellion (1769–1805), resulting in tremendous casualties of lives and property. The rebellion was suppressed but the kingdom was severely weakened by the civil war. Political rivalry between Prime Minister Purnananda Burhagohain and Badan Chandra Borphukan, the Ahom Viceroy of Western Assam, led to an invitation to the Burmese by the latter,[22][23][24][25] in turn leading to three successive Burmese invasions of Assam. The reigning monarch Chandrakanta Singha tried to check the Burmese invaders but he was defeated after fierce resistance.[26][27][28]

A reign of terror was unleashed by the Burmese on the Assamese people,[29][30][31][32] who fled to neighbouring kingdoms and British-ruled Bengal.[33][34] The Burmese reached the East India Company's borders, and the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandabo[35] in 1826, with the Company taking control of Western Assam and installing Purandar Singha as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region.

Initially Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was made a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a chief commissioners' province. In 1913, a legislative council and, in 1937, the Assam Legislative Assembly, were formed in Shillong, the erstwhile capital of the region. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas.

The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in 1874 as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province .[36]

After a few initially unsuccessful attempts to gain independence for Assam during the 1850s, anti-colonial Assamese joined and actively supported the Indian National Congress against the British from the early 20th century, with Gopinath Bordoloi emerging as the preeminent nationalist leader in the Assam Congress.[37] Bordoloi's major political rival in this time was Sir Saidullah, who was representing the Muslim League, and had the backing of the influential Muslim cleric Maulana Bhasani.[38]

The Assam Postage Circle was established by 1873 under the headship of the Deputy Post Master General.[39]

At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. Assam Province was one among major eight provinces of British India. The table below shows the major original provinces during British India covering the Assam Province under the Administrative Office of the Chief Commissioner.

The following table lists their areas and populations. It does not include those of the dependent Native States:[40]

With the partition of India in 1947, Assam became a constituent state of India. The district of Sylhet of Assam (excluding the Karimganj subdivision) was given up to East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh.

Modern history[edit]

The government of India, which has the unilateral powers to change the borders of a state, divided Assam into several states beginning in 1970 within the borders of what was then Assam. In 1963 the Naga Hills district became the 16th state of India under the name of Nagaland. Part of Tuensang was added to Nagaland. In 1970, in response to the demands of the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo people of the Meghalaya Plateau, the districts embracing the Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, and Garo Hills were formed into an autonomous state within Assam; in 1972 this became a separate state under the name of Meghalaya. In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh (the North East Frontier Agency) and Mizoram (from the Mizo Hills in the south) were separated from Assam as union territories; both became states in 1986.[citation needed]

Since the restructuring of Assam after independence, communal tensions and violence remain. Separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting in the fragmentation of Assam. In 1961, the government of Assam passed legislation making use of the Assamese language compulsory. It was withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation[41] triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighbouring Bangladesh and changing the demographics of the Indigenous Assamese people and also provide constitutional, legislative, administrative and cultural safeguards for the Indigenous Assamese people. The agitation ended after an accord (Assam Accord 1985) between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent.[42]

The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups such as the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA)[41] and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnically based militant groups have grown. Panchayati Raj Institutions have been applied[clarification needed] in Assam, after agitation of the communities due to the sluggish rate of development and general apathy of successive state governments towards Indigenous Assamese communities.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Physical Geography of Assam

See also: Tourism in North East India

A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month.Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is an antecedent river, older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long).[43] The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system.[43] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River.

Urban Centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world.[44] Guwahati is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business, education and tourism. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil, natural gas, tea and tourism industry centre,[45]Jorhat, and Tinsukia.

Climate[edit]

With the "Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate", Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.[43][46] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar–Apr) and autumn (Sept–Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam's agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains.

Flooding[edit]

See also: 2016 Assam floods

Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers deluges places in Assam. The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State.[47][48]

Fauna[edit]

See also: Biodiversity of Assam

Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests,[49] deciduous forests, riverine grasslands,[50]bamboo[51] orchards and numerous wetland[52] ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests.

Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites[53]-the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the white-winged wood duck or deohanh, Bengal florican, black-breasted parrotbill, red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture, greater adjutant, Jerdon's babbler, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, gaur, wild water buffalo, Indian hog deer, hoolock gibbon, golden langur, capped langur, barasingha, Ganges river dolphin, Barca snakehead, Ganges shark, Burmese python, brahminy river turtle, black pond turtle, Asian forest tortoise, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck (which may be extinct worldwide). For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam is a globally important area.[clarification needed][54] In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park.

Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the pygmy hog, tiger and numerous species of birds, and it provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. The state contains Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted from earlier times. A land of high rainfall, Assam displays greenery. The Brahmaputra River tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with hydro-geomorphic environment.[citation needed]

The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world.[55] The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species.[56] With subspecies the number is as high as 946.[57] The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species.[58]

Flora[edit]

Assam is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam.[59] The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India.

Geology[edit]

Assam has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar.[60] A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.[60] Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet (3.34×1010 m3) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3) of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province.[61][citation needed]

The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950.

Demographics[edit]

Main articles: Assamese people and People of Assam

Population[edit]

Population Growth 
CensusPop.
19518,029,000

196110,837,00035.0%
197114,625,00035.0%
198118,041,00023.4%
199122,414,00024.2%
200126,656,00018.9%
201131,169,27216.9%
Source:Census of India[62]
The 1981 Census could not be held
in Assam. Total population for 1981
has been worked out by interpolation.

The total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.[63] Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darrang, and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million in 2011 and is expected to reach 34.18  million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.[64]

As per the 2011 census, the total population of Assam was 31,169,272. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%.[65]

Of the 32 districts, eight districts registered a rise in the decadal population growth rate. Religious minority-dominated districts like Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Hailakandi, recorded growth rates ranging from 20 per cent to 24 per cent during the last decade. Eastern Assamese districts, including Sivasagar and Jorhat, registered around 9 per cent population growth. These districts do not have any international border.[66]

In 2011, the literacy rate in the state was 73.18%. The male literacy rate was 78.81% and the female literacy rate was 67.27%.[65] In 2001, the census had recorded literacy in Assam at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. The urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%.[67]

The growth of population in Assam has increased since the middle decades of the 20th century. The population grew from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941. It increased to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991.[63] The growth in the western and southern districts was high primarily due to the influx of people from East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.[42]

The mistrust and clashes between Indigenous Assamese people and Bengali Muslims started as early as 1952,[68][69] but is rooted in anti Bengali sentiments of the 1940s.[70] At least 77 people died[71] and 400,000 people was displaced in the 2012 Assam violence between indigenous Bodos and Bengali Muslims.[72]

The People of India project has studied 115 of the ethnic groups in Assam. 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic and Dravidians speakers, followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan speakers, and Tai–Kadai speakers.[73] Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism.[citation needed]

Religions[edit]

See also: Islam in Assam and Christianity in Assam

Map of Assam during 1907–1909
A map of the British Indian Empire in 1909 during the partition of Bengal (1905–1911), showing British India in two shades of pink (coral and pale) and the princely states in yellow. The Assam Province (initially as the Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam) can be seen towards the north-eastern side of India.
Showing an historical incident at Kanaklata Udyan, Tezpur
Assam till the 1950s; The new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram formed in the 1960-70s. From Shillong, the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, now a part of Guwahati. After the Indo-China war in 1962, Arunachal Pradesh was also separated out.
Environs: Assam, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and the Himalayas all around its north, north-east and east.
District-wise Demographic Characteristics in 2001
Tezpur has an important place in the history of Assam. With this article, explore all about travel and tourism in Tezpur city of India.

Tezpur

Location:Northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, Assam
Best Time to Visit:October to May
Must Visits:Agnigarh, Bamuni Hills, Cole Park, Mahabhairab Temple, Hazara Pukhuri, Bhomoraguri
Languages:Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, English
STD Code:0374

Tezpur is an important city of Assam and also serves as the administrative headquarters of the Sonitpur district. Situated on the banks of river Brahmaputra, this ancient city is known for its mythology, folklore and legends. The place derives its name from the Sanskrit words, 'Teza' meaning blood and 'Pura' meaning city or town. This is because it is believed that a battle between Lord Krishna and the Asura king Banasura, known as the Sonitpur, was fought in Tezpur only. Since thousands of people were killed in the battle and the whole city was flooded with human blood, the place came to be known as Tezpur.

This age old city of Tezpur, known for its splendid natural beauty and archeological ruins, is an absolute delight for every tourist as well as nature lover. The urban center of Guwahati is only about 180 kms from this place and the entire city is set amidst snow-capped mountains of the Himalayas, lush tea gardens and the innumerous hillocks of the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the major tourist attractions in and around Tezpur are Nehru Maiden, Chitralekha Udyan, Mahabhairav Temple, Agnigarh, Da-Parbatia, Bamuni Hills, the Hazara Pukhuri, Cole Park, Bhalukpong, Eco Camp, Bhomoraguri, Nameri Tiger Reserve, and Orang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Tezpur is regarded as the cultural capital of Assam. The city is, in fact, renowned for being the birthplace of many renowned artists, such as Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903-51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909-69), Phani Sarma (1909-70), Ananda Chandra Agarwala (1874-1939). It is also the birth Place of former speaker of Indian Parliament, Somnath Chatterjee. Presently, Tezpur also serves as a commercial, administrative and educational centre of Assam, apart from housing a major base of the Indian Army and Airforce (Salonibari). Last, but not the least, it is known for housing some of the best tea gardens in Assam.

Agnigarh
Agnigarh is one of the most important tourist destinations of Tezpur. A circular stairway leads to the peak of the hill and offers a good trekking option. In fact, people often come here for picnic or simply to enjoy the scenes and sights. There is a very famous legendary story behind this place.

Cole Park
Located in one of the most beautiful and legendary places of Assam, the Cole Park attracts a host of travelers and nature lovers every year. This park was established by Mr. Cole, a Commissioner of Assam under British rule. It was later renovated by Mr. M.G.V.K. Bhanu, the deputy Commissioner of Tezpur, in 1996.

Da Parbatia Temple
Tezpur, the city of mythology, folklore, and legends, is situated in the Sonitpur district of Assam. Situated amidst lush green valleys and lofty snow capped peaks of the Himalayas, the city is the ultimate travel destination of every tourist and nature lover. A few kilometers west of the city are the remnants of one of the oldest

Eco Camp
Around 50 km from the center of the Tezpur city of Assam, off the road to Arunachal Pradesh, is the unique Eco Camp, which can be reached by a short drive over creaky bridges and a dirt tract. This is one of the most favorite excursions and outdoor recreational sites around the city of Tezpur

Tezpur Excursions
The city of Tezpur, with its numerous monuments and parks, is widely visited by tourists all round the year. Apart from the attractions situated within the city, a number of tourist places are present at a short distance as well, which makes the trip to this city all the more exquisite and unique.

How to Reach Tezpur
The legendary city of Tezpur is one of the most popular tourist destinations of Assam and as such, enjoys good connectivity with all the major places of the state and the important cities of the country as well. Right from Mahabhairab Temple and Agnigarh to the Eco-Camp, the city has a lot to offer to tourists and the adventure seekers.

Ketakeshwar Dewal
Ketakeshwar Dewal is one of the holiest Hindu shrines in the northeast zone of India. The entire temple is dedicated to the worship of Lord Shiva and enshrines one of the biggest Shiva lingams in the entire world. Over the years, the temple has emerged as the most important pilgrimage centre in the state of Assam.

Mahabhairab Temple
Mahabhairab Temple, located atop a small hill in the northern part of Tezpur, is considered as a major landmark of this ancient city and contributes a lot to the magnetic charm and beauty of the place. It is believed that the original temple was made of stone, constructed by Banasura, the demon king who had his capital at Tezpur.

Nameri National Park
Around 35 km from the city of Tezpur, at the foothills of the eastern Himalayas, is situated one of the most exquisite park of Assam - Nameri National Park. Covering a total area of about 200 sq km, it is considered to be one of the richest as well as the most threatened reservoirs of the plant and the animal kingdom.

Tourist Attractions in Tezpur
Current Tezpur is regarded as the commercial, administrative and the educational center of Assam apart from being a major base for the Indian Army and the Indian Air force. A central university (Tezpur University) is located at the place and the city also boasts of a number of reputed schools

Tezpur Weather
Tezpur is located on the banks of river Brahmaputra, in the Sonitpur district of Assam. The city falls in the subtropical climatic zone and as such, has a monsoon type of climate It enjoys pleasant weather conditions all through the year. The only problem is the high humidity existing in the area.





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