This site offers an extensive collection of English translations of suttas from the Pāli Canon, as well as a multitude of free downloads of Dhamma from the Kammaṭṭhāna (or Thai Forest) Tradition of Buddhism. Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu of Metta Forest Monastery is the speaker, author or translator unless otherwise noted.
All of the Dhamma here is offered freely―no price tags, no advertising, no suggested donations, no memberships, no strings attached in any way. This is distributing the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma, in line with how the Buddha himself taught that his teachings should be offered.For those who want to express gratitude for the teachers’ generosity, the best way is to put the teachings into practice, earnestly―to see for yourself, for your own benefit, and for the benefit of the world.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Phra Ajaan Geoff)
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff) is an American Buddhist monk of the Kammatthana (Thai Forest) Tradition. After graduating from Oberlin College in 1971 with a degree in European Intellectual History, he traveled to Thailand, where he studied meditation under Ajaan Fuang Jotiko, himself a student of the late Ajaan Lee. He ordained in 1976 and lived at Wat Dhammasathit, where he remained following his teacher's death in 1986. In 1991 he traveled to the hills of San Diego County, USA, where he helped Ajaan Suwat Suvaco establish Metta Forest Monastery (Wat Mettavanaram). He was made abbot of the Monastery in 1993.
Kammatthana: Literally, “basis of work” or “place of work.” The term is most often used specifically to identify the Thai Forest Tradition, i.e., the forest tradition lineage founded by Phra Ajaans Mun and Sao. For an introduction to the history of the Kammatthana Tradition, see the essay “The Customs of the Noble Ones,” by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatto (1870-1949)
Ajaan Mun was born in 1870 in Baan Kham Bong, a farming village in Ubon Ratchathani province, northeastern Thailand. Ordained as a Buddhist monk in 1893, he spent the remainder of his life wandering through Thailand, Burma, and Laos, dwelling for the most part in the forest, engaged in the practice of meditation. He attracted an enormous following of students and, together with his teacher, Phra Ajaan Sao Kantasilo Mahathera (1861-1941), established the Kammatthana Tradition that subsequently spread throughout Thailand and to several countries abroad. He passed away in 1949 at Wat Suddhavasa, Sakon Nakhorn province.
Phra Ajaan Lee Dhammadharo (1907-1961)
Ajaan Lee was one of the foremost teachers in the Thai forest ascetic tradition of meditation founded at the turn of the century by his teacher, Phra Ajaan Mun Bhuridatto. His life was short but eventful. Known for his skill as a teacher and his mastery of supranatural powers, he was the first to bring the ascetic tradition out of the forests of the Mekhong basin and into the mainstream of Thai society in central Thailand.
Phra Ajaan Fuang Jotiko (1915-1986)
Ajaan Fuang was one of Ajaan Lee’s most devoted students, spending some 24 rains retreats in the company of his renowned teacher. After Ajaan Lee’s death, Ajaan Fuang continued on at Wat Asokaram, Ajaan Lee’s bustling monastery near Bangkok. A true forest monk at heart, Ajaan Fuang left Wat Asokaram in 1965 in search of greater solitude more conducive to meditation, and ultimately ended up at Wat Dhammasathit in Rayong province, where he lived as abbot until his death in 1986.
Phra Ajaan Suwat Suvaco (1919-2002)
Born on August 29, 1919, Ajaan Suwat ordained at the age of 20 and became a student of Ajaan Funn Acaro two or three years later. He also studied briefly with Ajaan Mun. Following Ajaan Funn’s death in 1977, Ajaan Suwat stayed on at the monastery to supervise his teacher’s royal funeral and the construction of a monument and museum in Ajaan Funn’s honor. In the 1980’s Ajaan Suwat came to the United States, where he established four monasteries: one near Seattle, Washington; two near Los Angeles; and one in the hills of San Diego County (Metta Forest Monastery). He returned to Thailand in 1996, and died in Buriram on April 5, 2002 after a long illness.
The best introductions to the Dhamma are The Buddha’s Teachings, a short introduction to the basic concepts and values underlying Buddhist practice; Noble Strategy, a collection of essays about Buddhism by Thanissaro Bhikkhu; Awareness Itself, a collection of short teachings by Ajaan Fuang, Thanissaro Bhikkhu’s teacher; and Refuge, a compilation of essays and scriptures from the Pali Canon addressing basic elements of the Buddhist Path.
The best starting point for learning breath meditation is the new book, With Each & Every Breath. The other fundamental guide to breath meditation is Keeping the Breath in Mind by Ajaan Lee.
The Dhammapada, the Udana, and the Itivuttaka are all excellent gateways to the Pali Canon.
The Wings to Awakening
Not for beginners, but the essential guide to practicing the Buddhist Path, following the Buddha’s own summary of his teachings, is The Wings to Awakening.
The Basics collection is a graduated series of 10-15 minute Dhamma talks addressing many areas of the practice. Any of the Dhamma talks can be played initially during meditation to provide guidance and ideas for experimentation. Alternatively, the Guided Meditations collection provides a few variations of a longer guided meditation providing more structure.
I’m having trouble downloading files.
Some people have downloading problems with the large .zip archives. Internet connections are often interrupted, and the download managers in web browsers are bad at resuming downloads. The download either fails, or it “completes” but is corrupted. If you're internet connection is bad, it’s recommended to use a download accelerator. These do a much better job at resuming interrupted downloads and leaving you with uncorrupted files. Some of these download accelerators are available as extensions to your web browser. Others are stand alone applications. An excellent free one that works on Windows, Android, and Linux is Uget.
What is an RSS feed?
An RSS feed is a simple list of new content to this site that your browser or feed reader will automatically check for updates. Then that list will be accessible from, ususally, your browser toolbar as a dropdown menu. Since the RSS feed is just a small text (xml) file, it doesn’t use as much bandwidth to check for new content as would visiting the site periodically to check for new content. Each item link in the feed’s list will open the location on dhammatalks.org where you can download the referenced content.
How do I subscribe to the RSS feed?
If you use Firefox or Internet Explorer browsers just left-click on the “subscribe” link and everything should be straightforward. Google Chrome doesn’t have an RSS feed reader, but you can get an add-on, such as Feedly, from the app store. This feed is RSS 2.0 but also ought to work with “atom” readers.
Are there any accessibility options for the vision impaired?
Many of these books can be downloaded in DAISY 3.0 and Braille Ready Format (BRF) formats directly from bookshare.org without any requirement of membership.
Which ebook format do I need?
The epub format works for most e-readers, such as Android, iPhone, iPad, Nook, Sony, Adobe Digital Editions, desktop and laptop computers, among others. But not Kindles! Kindles use either the azw3 or mobi format.
What’s the difference between the azw3 and mobi formats?
The azw3 and mobi are Amazon’s proprietary formats for Kindles. The azw3 is a big improvement over the mobi, and Kindles can finally benefit from the intended formatting and fonts. Amazon, however, does not (yet?) support the azw3 in the Kindle Personal Documents Service, so reportedly manual (usb) uploading to the Kindle device is still necessary. The mobi format will continue to be made available until Amazon fully supports the azw3.
What are the disadvantages of the pdf format?
The pdf format is the old standard and should be supported by all devices. The primary disadvantage of pdfs relative to epub, azw3 and mobi, however, is you cannot enlarge the font size without the text overflowing off the edge of the screen. That can make it quite challenging to read on small devices. Additionally, with the large ebooks, ones with 1,000 or 2,000 pages, your device might freeze or struggle to scroll through the pdf. Because of the way they’re constructed, that won’t happen with the other ebook formats.
I want to read the ebooks on my desktop or laptop computer. Which format should I get?
Epub. The epubs have the intended fonts and formatting because of the capabilities of the epub format itself and because the ebooks from this website were created originally as epubs. The mobis, on the other hand, are just push-button conversions from the epubs using the Calibre application. While the mobis are fully functional, no additional effort is put into correcting their formatting for the Kindle. It’s a credit to Calibre that they come out looking as well as they do. The original formatting and fonts are available on a Kindle by using the azw3 format, which is almost identical to the original epub version.
Is there any free software so I can read ebooks on my computer?
There are a number free reader apps. Purely for reading epubs, Adobe Digital Editions has a slick interface. Calibre is a more comprehensive option which allows for converting to other formats. There are also a Sony Reader app and a Nook-for-PC app. These might be of interest if you also have one of those devices for purposes of syncing. Kindle-for-PC reads mobis but is not recommended.
How can I get paperback versions of these books?
Please see the book request list for instructions. Please do not contact the website administrator via email to request books. Such requests will be disregarded.
I’m having trouble downloading mobi files.
Case 1: Instead of downloading the mobi file, the Safari browser tries to open it as web page. Answer: I was able to download the files on Safari by clicking on them while holding down the "option" button. Using Firefox instead of Safari also takes care of the problem. Based on a little research I did, it seems like the mobi as HTML problem on Safari is nothing new.
Case 2: The mobi downloads as a .txt file using a Samsung Galaxy tablet running Android 4.2.2. Answer: I noticed the url contained the mobi extension, but when I download it, it gets changed to a .txt extension. Manually renaming the file from filename.txt to filename.mobi fixes the problem, and it opens up in Kindle just fine.
How do I stream (listen to) the mp3 audio files?
The little orange “play” button will open your browser’s media player on the page. The little orange “close” button will stop playback.
How do I download the mp3 audio files?
If you click on the name of the talk or chant, the link will automatically tell your browser to download the file. If it still insists on streaming the talk, such as in Firefox, right-click the link to get a menu where you can choose download. Also, double check that your browser’s privacy extensions or settings are not interfering.
What happened to the full year zip archives?
Because hard drive space is expensive on a hosted web server, it was costly to store those large archives for the downloading convenience of a small number of users. It shouldn’t be too difficult to build a local collection by downloading the full month zip archives. In any case, there are advantages, since there is a much smaller chance of ending up with a corrupt file downloading ten 150 MB archives than a single 1.5 GB one.
What do “med-fi” “low-fi” “NR”, “oly”, & “sony” mean in some talk titles?
Please note that mp3 files with an “NR” or “(oly)” notation indicate recordings of somewhat lower audio quality -- “NR” for applied “Noise-Reduction” and “(oly)” for “Olympus,” an inferior recording device at the Monastery. Any of these could also be labelled “low-fi.” “(Sony)” is similar to “(oly),” but the audio quality is more acceptable. More recently the Sony device has been labelled “med-fi.”
All of the content on this site is meant to be released under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License. Most of the pre-2014 works are tagged with simple ‘for free distribution only’ language. More recent content is explicitly tagged with the Creative Commons (CC) License. Both licenses are meant to guide users to use and distribute the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma as explained above.There is some uncertainty about the meaning of ‘Commercial’ with regard to the CC NonCommercial License. For example, some consider the sale of content to support a non-profit entity to be ‘NonCommercial.’ The author and copyright holder of the content on this site considers any sale, including by non-profit entities for non-profit purposes, to be ‘Commercial’ and a copyright violation.To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Metta Forest Monastery (Wat Metta) has some useful information for day and overnight visitors to the Monastery, including maps, directions from the airport, transportation information, etiquette, the daily schedule, a calendar of uposatha days, as well as some photos from around the Monastery.Forest Dhamma provides free publications of the Dhamma talks and books of Ajaan Mahā Boowa and his disciples. The translations are either by Ajaan Paññavaddho, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, or Bhikkhu Silaratano (Ajaan Dick). Also there is information regarding Forest Dhamma’s monastery, in the tradition of Ajaan Mun and Ajaan Mahā Boowa, on a parcel of forest in rural Virginia, USA.TheravadaCN.org has Chinese translations of many of the Theravada writings from this website and Access to Insight.Audio Dharma has a number of recordings of seminars and lectures given by Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu that are not available on dhammatalks.org. These are free downloads, but there are <<Donate Now>> buttons throughout the site. These solicitations are not in any way connected with Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu or Metta Forest Monastery.
Optical media types
Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-onlyoptical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999. It was developed jointly by Sony and Philips Electronics, and intended to be the successor to their Compact Disc (CD) format. While the SACD format can offer more channels (e.g. surround sound), and a longer playing time than CD, research published in 2007 found no significant difference in audio quality between SACD and standard CD at ordinary volume levels.
Having made little impact in the consumer audio market, by 2007, SACD was deemed to be a failure by the press. A small market for SACD has remained, serving the audiophile community.
The Super Audio CD format was introduced in 1999.Royal Philips and Crest Digital partnered in May 2002 to develop and install the first SACD hybrid disc production line in the USA, with a production capacity of 3 million discs per year. SACD did not achieve the same level of growth that Compact discs enjoyed in the 1980s, and was not accepted by the mainstream market.
Main article: List of SACD artists
By October 2009, record companies had published more than 6,000 SACD releases, slightly more than half of which were classical music. Jazz and popular music albums, mainly remastered previous releases, were the next two most numerous genres represented.
Many popular artists have released some or all of their back catalog on SACD. Pink Floyd's album The Dark Side of the Moon (1973) sold over 800,000 copies by June 2004 in its SACD Surround Sound edition.The Who's rock opera Tommy (1969), and Roxy Music's Avalon (1982), were released on SACD to take advantage of the format's multi-channel capability. All three albums were remixed in 5.1 surround, and released as hybrid SACDs with a stereo mix on the standard CD layer.
Some popular artists have released new recordings on SACD. Sales figures for Sting's Sacred Love (2003) album reached number one on SACD sales charts in four European countries in June 2004.
Between 2007 and 2008, Genesis re-released all of their studio albums across three box sets. Each album in these sets contains the album on SACD in both new stereo and 5.1 mixes. The original stereo mixes were not included. The US & Canada versions do not use SACD but CD instead.
By August 2009 443 labels had released one or more SACDs. Instead of depending on major label support, some orchestras and artists have released SACDs on their own. For instance, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra started the Chicago Resound label to provide full support for high-resolution SACD hybrid discs, and the London Symphony Orchestra established their own 'LSO Live' label.
Many of the SACD discs that were released from 2000-2005 are now out of print and are available only on the used market. By 2009, the major record companies were no longer regularly releasing discs in the format, with new releases confined to the smaller labels.
SACD is a disc of identical physical dimensions as a standard compact disc; the density of the disc is the same as a DVD. There are three types of disc:
- Hybrid: Hybrid SACDs are encoded with a 4.7 GB DSD layer (also known as the HD layer), as well as a PCM (Red Book) audio layer readable by most conventional Compact Disc players.
- Single-layer: A DVD-5 encoded with one 4.7 GB DSD layer.
- Dual-layer: A DVD-9 encoded with two DSD layers, totaling 8.5 GB, and no PCM layer. Dual-layer SACDs can store nearly twice as much data as a single-layer SACD.
Unlike hybrid discs, both single- and dual-layer SACD's are incompatible with conventional CD players and cannot be played on them.
A stereo SACD recording has an uncompressed rate of 5.6 Mbit/s, four times the rate for Red Book CD stereo audio. Other technical parameters are as follows:
|CD layer (optional)||SACD layer|
|Disc capacity||700 MB||4.7 GB|
|Audio encoding||16 bit PCM||1 bit DSD|
|Sampling frequency||44.1 kHz||2.8224 MHz|
|Audio channels||2 (Stereo)||up to 6 (Discrete surround)|
|Playback time if stereo||80 minutes||110 minutes|
Commercial releases commonly included both surround sound (five full-range plus LFE multi-channel) and stereo (dual-channel) mixes on the SACD layer. Some reissues however, retained the mixes of earlier multi-channel formats (examples include the 1973 quadraphonic mix of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells and the 1957 three-channel stereo recording by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, reissued on SACD in 2001 and 2004 respectively).
Objective lenses in conventional CD players have a longer working distance, or focal length, than lenses designed for SACD players. This means that when a hybrid SACD is placed into a conventional CD player, the laser beam passes the high-resolution layer and is reflected by the conventional layer at the standard 1.2 mm distance, and the high-density layer is out of focus. When the disc is placed into an SACD player, the laser is reflected by the high-resolution layer (at 0.6 mm distance) before it can reach the conventional layer. Conversely, if a conventional CD is placed into an SACD player, the laser will read the disc as a CD since there is no high-resolution layer.
Main article: Direct Stream Digital
SACD audio is stored in a format called Direct Stream Digital (DSD), which differs from the conventional Pulse-code modulation (PCM) used by the compact disc or conventional computer audio systems.
DSD is 1-bit, has a sampling rate of 2.8224 MHz, and makes use of noise shapingquantization techniques in order to push 1-bit quantization noise up to inaudible ultrasonic frequencies. This gives the format a greater dynamic range and wider frequency response than the CD. The SACD format is capable of delivering a dynamic range of 120 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and an extended frequency response up to 100 kHz, although most currently available players list an upper limit of 70–90 kHz, and practical limits reduce this to 50 kHz. Because of the nature of sigma-delta converters, one cannot make a direct technical comparison between DSD and PCM. DSD's frequency response can be as high as 100 kHz, but frequencies that high compete with high levels of ultrasonic quantization noise. With appropriate low-pass filtering, a frequency response of 20 kHz can be achieved along with a dynamic range of nearly 120 dB, which is about the same dynamic range as PCM audio with a resolution of 20 bits.
To reduce the space and bandwidth requirements of Direct Stream Digital (DSD), a lossless data compression method called Direct Stream Transfer (DST) is used. DST compression is compulsory for multi-channel regions and optional for stereo regions. This typically compresses by a factor of between two and three, allowing a disc to contain 80 minutes of both 2-channel and 5.1-channel sound.
Direct Stream Transfer compression was also standardized as an amendment to MPEG-4 Audio standard (ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 6:2005 – Lossless coding of oversampled audio) in 2005. It contains the DSD and DST definitions as described in the Super Audio CD Specification. The MPEG-4 DST provides lossless coding of oversampled audio signals. Target applications of DST is archiving and storage of 1-bit oversampled audio signals and SA-CD. A reference implementation of MPEG-4 DST was published as ISO/IEC 14496-5:2001/Amd.10:2007 in 2007.
SACD has several copy protection features at the physical level, which made the digital content of SACD discs difficult to copy until the jailbreak of the PlayStation 3. The content may be copyable without SACD quality by resorting to the analog hole, or ripping the conventional 700 MB layer on hybrid discs. Copy protection schemes include physical pit modulation and 80-bit encryption of the audio data, with a key encoded on a special area of the disc that is only readable by a licensed SACD device. The HD layer of an SACD disc cannot be played back on computer CD/DVD drives, and SACDs can only be manufactured at the disc replication facilities in Shizuoka and Salzburg. However, PlayStation 3 with a SACD drive and appropriate firmware can use specialized software to extract a DSD copy of the HD stream.
Sound quality parameters achievable by the Red Book CD-DA and SACD formats compared with the limits of human hearing are as follows:
|Dynamic range||90 dB,|
120 dB (with shaped dither)
|105 dB||120 dB|
|Frequency range||20 Hz – 20 kHz||20 Hz – 50 kHz||20 Hz – 20 kHz (young person);|
upper limit 8–15 kHz (middle-aged adult)
Comparison with CD
In the audiophile community, the sound from the SACD format is thought to be significantly better than that of CD. For example, one supplier claims that "The DSD process used for producing SACDs captures more of the nuances from a performance and reproduces them with a clarity and transparency not possible with CD."
In September 2007, the Audio Engineering Society published the results of a year-long trial, in which a range of subjects including professional recording engineers were asked to discern the difference between SACD and a compact disc audio (44.1 kHz/16 bit) conversion of the same source material under double blind test conditions. Out of 554 trials, there were 276 correct answers, a 49.8% success rate corresponding almost exactly to the 50% that would have been expected by chance guessing alone. When the level of the signal was elevated by 14 dB or more, the test subjects were able to detect the higher noise floor of the CD quality loop easily. The authors commented:
Now, it is very difficult to use negative results to prove the inaudibility of any given phenomenon or process. There is always the remote possibility that a different system or more finely attuned pair of ears would reveal a difference. But we have gathered enough data, using sufficiently varied and capable systems and listeners, to state that the burden of proof has now shifted. Further claims that careful 16/44.1 encoding audibly degrades high resolution signals must be supported by properly controlled double-blind tests.
Following criticism that the original published results of the study were not sufficiently detailed, the AES published a list of the audio equipment and recordings used during the tests.
Comparison with DVD-A
Double-blind listening tests in 2004 between DSD and 24-bit, 176.4 kHz PCM recordings reported that among test subjects no significant differences could be heard. DSD advocates and equipment manufacturers continue to assert an improvement in sound quality above PCM 24-bit 176.4 kHz. Despite both formats' extended frequency responses, it has been shown people cannot distinguish audio with information above 21 kHz from audio without such high-frequency content.
The Sony SCD-1 player was introduced concurrently with the SACD format in 1999, at a price of approximately US$5,000. It weighed over 26 kilograms (57 lb) and played two-channel SACDs and Red Book CDs only. Electronics manufacturers, including Onkyo, Denon, Marantz, Pioneer and Yamaha offer or offered SACD players. Sony has made in-car Super Audio CD players.
SACD players are not permitted to offer an output carrying an unencrypted stream of Direct Stream Digital (DSD).
The first two generations of Sony's PlayStation 3 game console were capable of reading SACD discs. Starting with the third generation (introduced October 2007), SACD playback was removed. All PS3 models however will play DSD Disc format. PS3 was capable of converting multi-channel DSD to lossy 1.5 Mbit/s DTS for playback over S/PDIF using the 2.00 system software. The subsequent revision removed the feature.
Several brands have introduced (mostly high-end) Blu-ray Disc players that can play SACD discs.
Unofficial playback of SACD disc images on a PC is possible through freewareaudio playerfoobar2000 for Windows using an open source plug-in extension called SACDDecoder.Mac OS X music software Audirvana also supports playback of SACD disc images.
- ^ abcMeyer, E. Brad & Moran, David R. "Audibility of a CD-Standard A/DA/A Loop Inserted into High-Resolution Audio Playback". AES E-Library. 55 (9): 775–779.
- ^ abThe Guardian, Thursday 2 August 2007 No taste for high-quality audio by Jack Schofield. "Such a format—Super Audio CD (SACD)—has been out there since September 1999. And now, it's dying." Retrieved on May 29, 2009.
- ^ ab"The 10 Best Audiophile SACDs Ever - Many Are Out Of Print". Audiophilereview.com. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- ^"Crest National and Philips Partner to Bring SACD Hybrid Disc Manufacturing to the USA". Newscenter.philips.com. 2002-05-30. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- ^Mark Fleischmann Are DVD-Audio and SACD DOA? April 2, 2004 "the CD tidal wave was so aggressive that it swept away everything in its path including the terms album and record. I keep waiting for a high-resolution audio to trigger a similar tsunami. But tiny islands of SACDs and DVD-Audio titles in my local Tower Records have not grown into mighty continents."  Retrieved on January 16, 2010.
- ^C|Net News, March 26, 2009 Betamax to Blu-ray: Sony format winners, losers by Steve Guttenberg.  "SACD was praised by audiophiles, but fizzled in the market. Sony Records no longer releases new SACD titles" (This is not entirely true; while Sony Classical does not appear to be making new SACD releases, Sony Classical in Germany and Japan made SACDs as recently as June 5, 2009 Sony Classical GermanySony Music Japan) Retrieved on May 29, 2009.
- ^Stereofile eNewsletter, January 10, 2006. Io Saturnalia! by Wes Phillips.  Mentions "the failure of SACD and DVD-A to gain traction." Retrieved on May 28, 2009.
- ^Audio Video Revolution, October 19, 2006. The Symbolism Of Losing Tower Records by Jerry Del Colliano. "The pure failure of SACD and DVD-Audio as high resolution formats was analogous burning down a small town."  Retrieved on May 28, 2009.
- ^High Fidelity Review. News. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
- ^ abHigh Fidelity Review. Universal Music Artists Hit SACD Gold and Silver in Europe. Retrieved on May 18, 2009.
- ^SA-CD.net. FAQ
- ^Chicago Resound label retrieved June 6, 2009
- ^London Symphony Orchestra – Buy Recordings retrieved June 6, 2009
- ^Sinclair, Paul (January 30, 2013). "Top 10: SACDs you can afford to buy". Retrieved 2013-03-11.
- ^Guttenberg, Steve (July 16, 2009). "Are SACD and DVD-Audio dead yet?". CNET. Retrieved 2013-03-11.
- ^ abcdefgExtremetech.com, Leslie Shapiro, July 2, 2001. Surround Sound:The High-End: SACD and DVD-Audio. "A stereo SACD recording has a data rate of 5.6Mbps, which is four times the stereo CD data rate of 1.4Mbps." Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
- ^PC Magazine Encyclopedia Definition of Hybrid SACD Retrieved June 16, 2009
- ^ abcMiddleton, Chris; Zuk, Allen (2003). The Complete Guide to Digital Audio: A Comprehensive Introduction to Digital Sound and Music-Making. Cengage Learning. p. 54. ISBN 1592001025.
- ^Clifford, Martin (1987). "The Complete Compact Disc Player." Prentice Hall. p. 57. ISBN 0-13-159294-7.
- ^How A Hybrid Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD) Works "SACD players are equipped with optical pick-ups that emit a 650 nanometer wavelength laserlight that is reflected by the DSD layer. The optical pick-ups in all CD players, however, emit a 780 nanometer laserlight which is transparent to the DSD layer, so only the CD layer is read" Retrieved June 16, 2009
- ^Reefman, Derk; Nuijten, Peter. "Why Direct Stream Digital is the best choice as a digital audio format." (PDF) Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 5396, May 2001.
- ^Ambisonic.net. Richard Elen, August 2001. Battle of the Discs. Retrieved on May 20, 2009.
- ^practical-home-theater-guide.com Direct Stream Digital Technology Retrieved June 3, 2009
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- ^ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 N7465 (July 2005). "Description Lossless coding of oversampled audio". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- ^ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 N7465 (July 2005). "Description Lossless coding of oversampled audio". archive.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2009-12-28.
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- ^Fries, Bruce; Marty Fries (2005). Digital Audio Essentials. O'Reilly Media. p. 147. ISBN 0-596-00856-2.
- ^http://xiph.org/~xiphmont/demo/neil-young.html “With use of shaped dither ... the effective dynamic range of 16 bit audio reaches 120dB in practice”
- ^ abRossing, Thomas (2007). Springer Handbook of Acoustics. Springer. pp. 747, 748. ISBN 978-0387304465.
- ^"What are the benefits of SACD?" Mariinsky Label FAQ" Retrieved January 1, 2014.
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- ^Paul D. Lehrman: The Emperor's New Sampling RateMix online, April 2008.
- ^Blech, Dominikp; Yang, Min-Chi. "DVD-Audio versus SACD: Perceptual Discrimination of Digital Audio Coding Formats." (PDF) Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 6086, May 2004.
- ^"The 1-Bit Advantage – Future Proof Recording"(PDF). Korg. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- ^Toshiyuki Nishiguchi, Kimio Hamasaki, Masakazu Iwaki, and Akio Ando, "Perceptual Discrimination between Musical Sounds with and without Very High Frequency Components"  Published by NHK Laboratories in 2004
- ^"The Sony SCD-1 SACD Player". @udiophilia. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
- ^Onkyo's list of CD Players shows a single SACD player, the C-S5VL. Retrieved March 21, 2012
- ^Denon's web page shows a single SACD player, the DCD-SA1. Retrieved June 3, 2009
- ^Marantz's list of Hi-Fi Components shows one SACD player and Marantz's "Reference series" list shows four SACD players. Retrieved June 3, 2009
- ^The PD-D6-J and PD-D9-J are two SACD players that Pioneer offers. Retrieved June 3, 2009
- ^Yamaha's web page shows the CD-S1000 and CD-S2000 SACD players. Retrieved June 3, 2009
- ^"Sony Announces Three Super Audio CD Car Stereo Players". High Fidelity Review. Archived from the original on 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2007-01-18.
- ^practical-home-theater-guide.com SACD Playback Requirements and Content Protection "SACD compatible players are not permitted to send DSD digital content over an unencrypted digital audio link" Retrieved June 18, 2009
- ^"Why did Sony take SA-CD out of PS3 again?". PS3 SACD FAQ. Retrieved 2009-01-04.
- ^"Firmware v2.01". PS3SACD.com. November 22, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
- ^"Super Audio CD-compatible Blu-ray Disc players". Retrieved 2009-10-21.
- ^Maxim V. Anisiutkin. "Super Audio CD Decoder". SourceForge. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- ^"Audirvana Plus". Audirvana. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
A Super Audio CD uses two layers and the standardized focal length of conventional CD players to enable both types of player to read the data.